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Published in Hollywood, 
by 

American Society 
of Cinematographers 


*ES.U. S. PAT. OFF. 


SUPERIOR PANCHROMATIC NEGATIVE 

has 

Outstanding Advantages 

for 

Feature • 

Industrial • 

News • 

Cinematography 

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March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 85 


AMERICAN 

CINEMATOGRAPHER 


A Technical and Educational publication 
of motion picture photography. 

Published monthly by the 
AMERICAN SOCIETY 
OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, INC. 

1782 N. Orange Drive 
Hollywood, California 

Telephone CRanite 2135 

JOHN ARNOLD, President, A.S.C. 

FRED JACKMAN, Treasurer. A.S.C. 


Vol. 18 March, 1937 No. 3 


Whdt to Read 


JUST Breaking In 

By George Blaisdell 89 



THEY MAKE Pictures in India 


By Paul Perry, A.S.C 90 

RIVER Roll Along 

By Fred Felbinger .92 

LIGHTING Shirley Temple 

By Arthur Miller, A.S.C 94 


AGFA'S Fundamentally New Type of 


Infra-Red Film 

By A. Farciot Edouart, A.S.C 96 

A. S. C. Members on Parade 98 

"STROGOFF" Triumph in Technique 101 



The Staff 

EDITOR 

George Blaisdell 

TECHNICAL EDITOR 

Emery Huse, A. S. C. 

ADVISORY 
EDITORIAL BOARD 

Victor Milner, A. S. C. 
James Van Trees, A. S. C. 
Fred Jackman, A. S. C. 
Farciot Edouart, A. S. C. 
Fred Gage, A. S. G. 
Dr. J. S. Watson, A. S. C. 

Dr. L. A. Jones, A. S. C. 
Dr. G. E. K. Mees, A. S. C. 
Dr. W. B. Rayton, A. S. C. 
Dr. Herbert Meyer, A. S. G. 
Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. G. 

ADVERTISING 

J. T. Pierson 

CIRCULATION MANAGER 

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FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES 

&;orges Benoit, 100 Alice Franklin, 
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ESTABLISHED 1918. Advertising Rates on application. 
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Foreign. $3.50 a year. Single copies. 25c; back num- 
bers, 30c. Foreign single copies. 35c;- back numbers, 
40c. COPYRIGHT 1937 by American Society of 
Cinematographers, Inc. 


Neither the American Cinematographer nor 
the American Society of Cinematographers 
is responsible for statements made by au- 
thors. This magazine will not be responsible 
for unsolici‘’ed manuscripts. 




This scene from Universal Pictures 
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shows why we say . . . 


FOR EVERY LIGHTING NEED 


...there is a G-E MAZDA LAMP 


This behind-the-scenes shot of the 
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With a wide range of types and sizes, 
G-E Mazda lamps provide light to 
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the versatility of these lamps also helps 
to create a very interesting new effect. 

The Stars Actually Twinkle 

Thanks to hundreds of G-E MAZDA 
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behind the stars in the background 
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Electric Co., Nela Park, Cleveland, O. 


G-E MAZDA 
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lamp No. 2 


GENERAL ELECTRIC 

MAZDA LAMPS 






March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 87 




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8S American Cinematographer • March, 1937 




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March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 89 


JUST BREAKING IN 

By GEORGE BLAISDELL 


The Troupe Sends Greetings 

A song we'll sing of this Hollywood bond, 

Of the less and the great from ev'ry land . . . 

The writers of words, the makers of songs, 

The makers of joy, the righters of wrongs; 

Actor, director and cameraman who 
Give all of their best to entertain you . . . 

True sometimes we hear this called Heartbreak Town — 
Sometimes chill Fate really does get you down. 

But 'tend to your knitting, hold high your chin, 

Keep pounding and crashing and don't give in . . . 

For Hollywood's walls are heavy and thick- — ■ 

To climb them but few can master the trick. 

A war 'tis of wits, of brain and of brawn. 

But great is the prize if you last till dawn. 

Like the soldiers in Bony's high rolling tides, 

A Marshal's baton in eoch knopsack rides. 

And here's to our friends the wide world around. 

On land or on sea where Screen may be found, 

Greetings we send from this Heartbreak Town's crew. 
From each one of us to each one of you! 


AGE CANNOT WITHER 

A DECADE AGO a picture ran its course and was 
formally removed from the screen. There was but 
one physical reminder of a subject's entrance and 
departure, that practically all of its positive prints had 
ascended in smoke. The survival, of course, was the nega- 
tive. That was written off the books as a rule and shoved 
into vaults, with perhaps a record somewhere indicating 
its whereabouts. There was possibly a chance in a hundred 
later on it might be "revived." 

Not so is the situation today. The life of those pictures 
which in their earlier runs were rated 
in the higher brackets of entertainment 
is extended away beyond the dead line 
of other days. The discovery by neigh- 
borhood exhibitors that a subject that 
was good although several years old was 
a better box office attraction than an 
up-to-date lemon was responsible for 
deloying the death of many films. 

• For a few days in February one of 
the smaller Hollywood boulevard houses 
put on dually "Reunion in Vienna," first 
shown to the public in May, 1933, and 
"Tugboat Annie," released three months 
later. This reporter will admit he wit- 
tingly picked the program against the 
others on the boulevard, feeling assured 
he would be better entertained than by 
taking a chance on the others. 

Then agoin the hunter for entertain- 
ment wanted to see in fact as in fiction 
the shade of Marie Dressier of blessed 
memory. He never did have any sympathy 


with the fears of the hysterically timid and overfearful pro- 
ducers ond exhibitors who shied from a picture contoining 
in the cost a person who no longer lived. 

• Who is so bold as to assert that any such feeling will 
prevail in the years to come when a goodly percentage of 
well-to-do families will treasure films containing the faces 
and figures of loved ones long since lost! There hardly will 
be denial one of the greatest future sales arguments on 
behalf of the amateur motion picture equipment will be 
that in the years to come its product will be the family's 
greatest heirloom — provided of course ordinarily intelli- 
gent use is made of the camera and film. 

As an illustration, in "Tugboat Annie" again we see 
pulsing with life the inwardly feminine though outwardly 
rugged but altogether lovable Marie Dressier. In her pic- 
ture there was nothing to indicate she no longer was with 
us. Her portrayal now will have historical value, as will 
the other subjects in which she appeared — value because 
the player was as the legal men phrase it, "unique," and 
not to be replaced by others. May her memory never fade. 

• In that same program was another characterization 
that a hundred years hence undoubtedly will possess lively 
interest for the students of drama — and that was the por- 
trayal by John Barrymore of the "nut" prince of the house 
of Hapsburg. Have it your own way if you will when you 
say the chief performer was staging himself. 

Seemingly the script writers felt that way about it, too, 
for they put into his mouth words that seemed to be re- 
vealing Barrymorean as well as Hapsburgian history. But 
who cares? It was a corking performance. No other actor 
could have done it quite as he did. 

• If on the producers' "don't book" in 1933 there were 
any rule against drinking scenes similar to that adopted 
within a few weeks no attention was paid to it. The en- 
forcement of such a ruling would have robbed this particu- 
lar subject of much of its flavor, color — yes, and historical 
accuracy. 

But retracing our steps a bit, the screen in its returning 
to the living and the still loving the form 
and almost physical presence of those 
who have passed on will continue to be- 
stow a major blessing on mankind — and 
it will continue steadily to enhance the 
value in the studio and in the home of 
all the man-created devices that make 
possible the recording of these images 
on film. 

JOE FISHER HEARD FROM 

• When Paul Perry was preparing for 
the trip to the Orient from which he has 
recently returned he was asked by this 
writer to look up Joe Fisher and to say 
"Hallo." 

There was a grim smile on the face 
of the returned traveler when he sighted 
the editor. "I saw your friend Joe 
Fisher," he said. "And when I said 
'Hallo' for you he just laughed. No, no. 
I'm sure he has not forgotten you. He 
seemed to remember you plenty well. 

Continued on page 123 


Speaking Photographically 

A LONG TIME AGO — so long 
' ' ago a recital of the quip now 
may be rated as news — Wu Ting- 
Fang, a famous Chinamon and at 
the moment diplomatic represent- 
ative of his country in the United 
States, attended a reception in 
Washington. 

His eyes rested upon a tall and 
angular woman, rarely lean as it 
were and exceedingly decollete. 
Wu's masculine companion turned 
his gaze in the same direction. 
The Chinaman leaned closer as 
he almost whispered: 

"Speaking photographically, 
might it not be so'd the lady 
would seem to be overexposed 
and underdeveloped?" 


90 American Cinematographer • March, 1937 



Members of the Franklin-Crandville Expeditions Ltd. in Calcutta wi th some ot their sound equipment. The expedition was organized 
by Fred LeRoy Crandville, A.S.C. From left to right are Mr. Schul meister, laboratory; Major W. J. Moylan, production manager; Mrs. 

Franklin, Captain Norman Franklin and Paul Perry, A.S.C. 


They Make 
Pictures 
In India 

by 

Paul Perry, A.S.C. 


NDIA'S MOTION PICTURE STUDIOS turn out more than 
300 feature productions each year. These pictures ore 
made by native Indian artists and technicians, about na- 
tive subjects, for that vast majority of India's three hun- 
dred millions who prefer to be entertained bv their own 
people, speaking their own languages. To me, however, 
the most remarkable thing about India's film growth is 
the fact that her film technicians are largely self-taught, 
and in spite of this handicap are producing highly credit- 
able pictures. 

In this development, India's eyes are turned largely to- 
ward Hollywood for information and inspiration. The 
Americon Cinematographer is by far the most respected 
and influential film publication received in India; its tech- 
nical articles by members of the A.S.C. and their fellow- 
workers in research, recording and the like are as gospel 
pronouncements in the Indian studios. 

Most strikingly is this borne out by the fact that several 
years ago, in an article in the Cinematographer, L. E, 
Clark argued that the men who record motion picture 
sound deserved a title more fitting than "sound man or 
"recording engineer." The Cameraman, he pointed out, 
had advanced his craft to a point where the bare desig- 
nation "cameraman" was woefully inadequate, and while 


undoubtedly he was a photographic engineer, he also was 
uniquely an artist; and fittingly to designate this unique 
combination the word "cinematographer" had been coined 
and had come into use. 

Birth of Vocabulary 

The same development, Clark continued, had taken 
place in the work and status of the recording experts. 
Accordingly, these men deserved an equally fitting desig- 
nation. Since "cinematographer" indicates one who 
"writes with motion," should not his fellow-artist be termed 
one who "writes with sound"? And Clark suggested the 
name "audiographer." 

Today, if in any of India's many and widely-scattered 
studios, you inquire about the "sound man" or "recording 
engineer" you are greeted with a blank stare. From one 
end of India to the other the dictators of the decibels are 
known as "audiographers" and their work as "audi- 
ography." 

In the matter of technical equipment the Indian film 
industry is to a considerable extent Americanized, with 
second honors going to Germany. Most of the raw film 
used is of either Eastman or Agfa manufacture, though 
both DuPont and the British Selo products are represented. 
Bell & Howell and Mitchell cameras compete strongly with 
the French-made DeBrie "Super-Parvo." The latter have 
a considerable advantage in price and, I think, in the com- 
missions paid its agents. At any rate, more and more 
DeBries are coming into use. 

Americans and British Lead Sound 

Lighting equipment represents another contest between 
American and German products. Hollywood-made Mole- 
Richardson lamps are well known and extensively used, 
but German lamps, thanks in no small part to the aid af 
price and commissions, are also very widely used. Quite 
a few of the new M-R "Solarspots" are to be found in the 
better-equipped Indian studios. As yet no foreign manu- 
facturer has anything that can compare with them. Now 
that a British Mole-Richardson plant has been started in 
London these lamps should have definite advantages in 
India, for the Government gives British-made products a 
marked preference in duties. 

Sound equipment is largely American and British. RCA, 
Western Electric and British Acoustic are the leading sys- 


March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 91 


terns, though many others, such os Fidelytone, Tobis- 
Klongfilm, Baisley & Phillips, and the like, also are heard 
from. In my travels through India, I was repeatedly 
amazed at the strange places I encountered independent 
producers using Artreeves sound systems. I would land 
in a place where I was quite sure no one had any idea of 
film production — and find an Artreeves outfit working 
merrily. There are 43 of these in India. 

As regards editing equipment, Moviolas, while there 
are a few in India, are practically unknown. Instead, 
they use the German "Union" Editing Tables. These ore 
really interesting machines. They consist of a large metal 
table, with four horizontal stripping-flanges and separate 
picture and sound movements. The film travels on its 
edge. The picture-image is viewed through an aperture 
in the table about the size of the opal inspection-glasses 
we see in American cutting-room tables. 

Majors and Independents, Too 

The films may be run forward or backward, at any speed, 
or held still on a given frame, and there is the advantage 
of being able to run the sound and picture at different 
speeds, to restore synchronization, etc. If it is desired to 
check on lip-movements, pressing a lever projects the pic- 
ture up to about 3 by 4 foot size on a wall screen. 

Most of the larger studios have DeBrie automatic de- 
veloping machines for both negative and positive, though 
some of the smaller independents still use rack-and-tank. 
While I was in Bombay, Imperial Pictures installed a com- 
plete Cinecolor laboratory, and is now producing features 
in color. 

The industry in India is divided into major and inde- 
pendent producers, much as it is here in Hollywood. Among 
the majors may be mentioned Imperial, Bombay Talkies, 
which has one of the most modern studios in India, and 
virtually the only one in which the department heads are 
Europeans (Germans), and Wadia, all of which are in 
Bombay; Prabhat, in Poona; Saraswati Talkies, in Kolha- 
pur, and the East India Film Company and New Theatres 
in Calcutta. 


Over One Hundred Producers 

This, of course, is only a partial listing, for India has 
six or eight major firms and a total of over a hundred pro- 
ducing companies, working in almost fifty studios scat- 
tered around the land. Bombay is by far the main pro- 
duction center, with Calcutta next, and Poona, Kolhapur, 
Madras and Lahore also active. As may be imagined, 
there are a number of service studios, the largest of which 
is Film City, in Bombay. This plant compares very favor- 
ably with Hollywood's smaller studios, and was built by 
the late A. Fazaibhoy of the Bombay Radio Company, the 
enterprising distributor for Bell & Howell, Mitchell and 
DeBrie cameras, Mole-Richardson lamps, British Acous- 
tic and RCA sound, Moviolas, and a variety of other 
products. 

The Indian technicians are almost without exception 
self-taught, and a very earnest, studious group of men. 
They have reached a stage in their collective evolution 
comparable to that which we in Hollywood had attained 
at the time when the American Society of Cinematographers 
was organized. Many of our old-timers can recall how in 
the early days there was very little intercourse between 
workers in the different studios; how ideas developed on 
one lot were jealously guarded lest some unmitigated 
scoundrel from another studio might appropriate them. 

As everybody knows, since the A.S.C. brought the mem- 
bers of the cinematographic profession into close, open- 
minded contact, progress, individual and collective, has 
been amazingly rapid. India is at that same stage. Only 
within the last few years have there been organizations 


to bring together the men from the different studios. 
These are the Motion Picture Society of India and the 
Film Technicians of India, organizations which are doing 
a great work for Indian pictures. 

A Keen Audience 

During my stay in India it was my privilege to be in- 
vited to address the former group, and to be made 
one of its honorary members. I am sure no speaker ever 
had a more interested audience than I did that night, nor 
one whose questioning so clearly showed how studiously 
his auditors follow their subjects. I was greatly relieved 
to find that although these men are making pictures in 
such native tongues as Hindi, Urdu, Tamil, Bengali and 
even Persian, most of them speak and understand Eng- 
lish surprisingly well. 

One unfortunate misunderstanding did occur, however. 
That was when I was asked about the relationship between 
Cinecolor, Multicolor, Magnacolor, Vericolor, and the other 
bipack color processes. My natural reply was they were all 
alike in the photographing, but differed in their printing 
technique. That was misinterpreted into the statement 
there was no difference at all between them. 

India has some surprisingly fine cinematographic and 
audiographic artists. Unfortunately, when I left India, 

I planned to return immediately, rather than to swing 
around via Hollywood. Accordingly, I left without making 
proper notes of the names of these gentlemen and they 
are names not easily remembered by an Occidental, so I 
cannot credit them as I would like. For this I apologize. 

India's prime technical weakness is in accessory equip- 
ment and in laboratory and cutting technique. There is 
much that is commonplace here in Hollywood which is un- 
known there, probably for the reason that they have had 
no opportunity to see the equipment itself in actual use, 
and naturally dislike to gamble where relatively large sums, 
high import duties, and 6,000 miles of distance are in- 
volved. 

The laboratories in the major studios are excellently 
equipped and capably operated. They have a tremendous 
problem to contend with in the climate, however. Amer- 
ican and European makers of developing machines have 
not fully taken this into consideration; for example, due 
to the high humidity, much additional dry-box space is 
necessary, and, due to the heat, drying should be by air- 
conditioning rather than mere heating. 

Continued on page 102 


Not Tennis Champion Fred 
but Paul Perry, A.S.C., dis- 
regarding good-natured jibes 
of tennis addicts but taking 
up game in self defense. 
Hindu bearer or servant at 
left. 



92 American Cinematographer • March, 1937 


RIVER -roll along 


by 

Fred C^Red^O Felbinger 


M r. DEVEREAUX checked the river gauge, and only 
after Mr. Devereaux, Cincinnati's official predictor, 
checked the river gauge did he dare predict an all- 
time flood stage of 15 feet for Cincinnati. 

However, long before Mr. Devereaux predicted a 75- 
foot flood stage for Cincinnati, newsreel editors hod moved 
o battalion of lens snipers into Cincinnati. You see, 75- 
foot flood stage would pass the all time record for Cin- 
cinnati, set in 1913 by the Ohio River. 

Long before the gauge hit the 75 mark this flood was 
already news . . . National news! So the ace newsreelers. 
from New York and Chicago, had already had a flood 
story, built around Cincinnati, in the can. 

This was a flood, a real flood, and when she hit the 75- 
foot mark she shot the works. She proved Mr. Devereaux, 
the official predictor for Cincinnati, an expert. She broke 
the '13 record and she proved that the New York news- 
reel editors could smell a real story miles away. 

If you had your doubts about the New York newsreel 
editors, all you had to do was check the personnel they 
had stationed at Cincinnati when she blew. The newsreel 
cameramen covering Cincinnati were doing a conscientious 
job so far. 

Here Was Big News 

Then the gas tanks up Millcreek Valley let go, fire burst 
out, and for hours it seemed another catastrophe, like the 
'Frisco disaster, or perhaps the great Chicago Fire, would 
scribble the name Cincinnati into the pages of history. 
The great Cincinnati fire of '37! 

That's why the newreel leasers stood there in pouring 
rain, facing fire and flood waters, recording on film for an 
unseen audience and posterity the great Cincinnati catas- 
trophe of '37. News was not any longer in the making. 
News was here and big in Cincinnati. The fire was cov- 
ered and the flood was covered. 

Then a mod scramble to ship the precious negative to 
New York. Trains were no longer running into Cincinnati. 
The railroads had called an embargo on all shipments ana 
the airport was under water. The newsreelers had cov- 
ered the Cincinnati flood and the great Millcreek Fire, 
but covering such an event was not sufficient. 

What the hell good did it do a newsreeler to cover such 
a news story if you couldn't ship the stuff? So a feverish 
dash by boat and car for Columbus, the closest point to 
ship — and finally the editors received the stuff at New 
York, and an outside world had its first inkling of a great 
catastrophe. 

Meanwhile, Mr. Devereaux had measured up to his repu- 
tation as a predictor. The river reached the 75-foot stage, 
an all time record for Cincinnati. 

The waters lapped at the foundations of the water 
works plant! It went out! 

The river lopped at the foundations of the electric plant. 
It went out! 


And Cincinnati, a metropolis in the Middle West, was 
paralyzed and isolated. 

Newsreelers had covered up to this point and had a great 
catastrophe in the can! . . . But the real stary was still 
to come! 

The river went over the 75-foot stage! It rose higher 
and higher! And then the Ohio River mastered its smallest 
and most picayune enemy . . . Man! 

Cincinnati . . . Lawrenceville . . . Louisville . . . Evans- 
ville . . . Paducah . . . Cairo. 

Ole' Man River ... he just roiled on . . . sweeping q'I 
in his way . . . and the newsreelers were there . . . record- 
ing the greatest catastrophe story of all time! 

Tight Spot for Six 

At Cincinnati three newsreelers set out in a Coast Guard 
boat. The current was running fast . . . one newsreeler 
in his excitement to get a good skyline shot went over- 
board . . . his Akeley camera caught his foot . . . two 
other newsreelers bore down on the camera ta hald hini 
to the cutter. 

If he went into the river he was doomed. His leg 
caught in a painful angle under the collapsed camera. 
The newsreeler screamed with pain: "My leg! my leg!" . . . 
a Coast Guarder yelled: "The hell with your leg . . . it's 
you we're trying to get back into the boat!" 

And the cutter all the while was slipping toward a group 
of submerged buildings and certain capsizing of the cut- 
ter and drowning of its six occupants. 

Then safely getting the newsreeler back into the boot 
and making the treacherous stream back to safety with 
the skipper yelling: "And the first one of you camera 

lugs that starts shootin' . . . why . . . I'll just mow you 
down with this spare oar I have here!" 

Oh, for a Bath! 

Then back to the hotel . . . No water for a bath . . . 
just a jug of well water for drinking purposes . . . and the 
typhoid shots in the arm . . . God! . . . how they sickened 
you . . . Your arm felt like someone hit you with a base- 
ball bat . . . and two more shots to go ... in the next 
two weeks . . . oh, to get out of Cincinnati, but that was 
impossible. 

After all, the boss was depending on you coming through 
... no electric light . . . never knew the value of light 
and water before . . . oh, to be home and run the water 
faucet . . . clean hot water . . . for a bath . . . jeez! even 
to drink. 

The river was still rising . . . would it never end? . . . 
the refugees, who had lost all. Their forlorn looks! Why, 
it even made a guy cry to hear their stories . . . and see 
their plight . . . and these hard-boiled cameramen. 

This was the big flood of '37. Mr. Devereaux was right, 
but one didn't mention Mr. Devereaux any more. The 
river was up to 80 feet now, and still rising. Then the 
lull. She was now standing still. Houses were floating 
down the river, one after another . . . pictures . . . pictures 
wherever one aimed his camera . . . but for some reason 
you didn't thrill to covering it. 

Here was a saga . . . the saga of the Ohio on a ram- 
page . . . the ole river just rolled on and on, and with 


March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 93 



it the heartaches of thousands . . . yeah! here were pic- 
tures, no matter which way you pointed your lens . . . 
but it kinder gripped at your heartstrings to be a witness 
to the havoc of Ole' Mon River on o rampage. 

Gagging Ncwsreelers 

You no longer worried about no electric light ... no 
both ... no drinking water ... or the jumping pains in 
your arms from the typhoid shots. This was the big flood 
of '37. 

Bock at your hotel you figured how in hell you wers 
going to get the new stuff into New York . . . for the dead- 
line . . . but somehow you got through with it . . . and 
then you called your buddies at Louisville. 

Louisville! Down in the Blue Gross country, where they 
run the Kentucky Derby! . . . Louisville! Now the big 
victim of the flood .... the flood of '37! Louisville, 
which would replace Dayton in flood history, the Dayton 
of 1913. 

Louisville, another metropolitan city, entirely submerged 
by flood waters! After much coercion and finnigling, you 
finally got your call through to your buddy . . . another 
newsreeler covering Louisville . . . and you heard his pitiful 
tale . . . Mass burials! National Guardsmen pointing rifles 
at you for trying to cover and make shots of burying the 
dead! Why this gagging newsreelers? Nobody knew! 
But it was happening! 

Same living conditions at Louisville if not worse than at 
Cincinnati. No drinking or bathing water, but a guy at 
least wanted to shave. This was accomplished by heating 
White Rock water in a 200 foot film can using three 
candles to heat the can. 


Here is Fred (“Red”) Felbinger, one of Paramount’s newshounds 
out ot the Chicago office, standing at the edge of a receding 
stream which shortly before had submerged the Coco Cola sign 
across this Cincinnati street. No longer are the waters tumbling 
and tilled with all the tragic and incongruous accompaniments 
that swirled south when the flood was at the peak. The camera- 
man has had a chance to get “cleaned up a bit,” as he ex- 
plained in a note. Also he was enjoying an opportunity to plant 
his tripod on the ground where tor days his only platform had 
been a boat. The writer ot this graphic story ot hazard and per- 
sonal discomfort has been doing this sort ot thing tor many years 
and looks upon it as all in a day’s work. The still was photographed 
tor the subject by an unidentified member ot the Wide World 
staff. The newsreeler who was in such deadly peril when he went 
over the side ot the Coast Guard boat was Emille Montemurro, 
staff cameraman tor Fox-Movietone News, Chicago. 


Newsreelers Fighting Odds 

Hot water at any price! Then the cameraman's diet. 
A kerosene heater, in the hotel coffee shop, warmed the 
daily, frugal fare for the grinders; an eternal diet of just 
two choices on the menu, either scrambled eggs or beef 
stew, with a generous sprinkling of the kerosene fumes in 
all dishes served! 

Then too, the perpetual danger of disease, from the con- 
tact with contaminated waters. This was Louisville, Blue 
Grass capital . . . home of the Kentucky Derby! Now 
merely one of the key points of the ravages of Ole' Man 
River ! 

And further on down the river . . . Paducah . . . Evans- 
ville . . . now completely submerged . . . and fellow news- 
reelers grinding away. Then Cairo ... at the meeting 

Continued on page 128 






94 American Cinematographer • March, 1937 



The Child and the Artist 


LIGHTING 

SHIRLEY 

TEMPLE 


by 

Arthur Miller, A.S.C. 


P hotographically as well as personally, photo- 
graphing Shirley Temple is one of the most interesting 
assignments of my experience. Perhaps I ought to say 
"four of the most interesting assignments," since the cur- 
rent production, "Wee Willie Winkie," is my fourth with 
Shirley. 

In a career that goes back longer than I like to think 
I have photographed many children who were stars and 
neor-stars. But I never knew anyone like Shirley Temple. 
It is almost unbelieveable that any seven-year-old could 
be the focus of such universal acclaim as goes with the 
fact of being the world's No. 1 box-office personality and 
still remain unspoiled. 

But Shirley does it. And this acclaim pursues her into 
the studio. I have seen distinguished visitors and hard- 


boiled newspapermen, accustomed to meeting fame on 
even terms, gawk like yokels when Shirley was working. 

I can't say I blame them, for Shirley is on unusual little 
trouper. Her ability for lines and business amazes each new 
director. Invariably she is letter-perfect in her lines. Often 
we will shoot three or four pages of dialog in a single 
scene — and even the most experienced actors might be ex- 
cused for "blowing" some of Shirley's lines. But not 
Shirley! I have never known her to miss a line. If we 
could shoot only for her, we could wrap up every scene 
in one take. 

Just for good measure, she is equally familiar with every 
other player's lines. Not only cues, if you please, but 

complete speeches. Often I've seen an experienced actor 
in a scene with Shirley blow up, perhaps in the middle of 
a long speech. Shirley will look at him, bursting to say 
"You should say this — " — but she restrains herself, like 
the little lady she is. 

On the last picture, "Stowaway," though, she said it. 
Robert Young has a fine sense of humor, and she knew 
she could kid him. He took it like a sport — and vowed 
to return the compliment at the first opportunity. But 
that opportunity never came! 

In spite of this, Shirley will never let down o scene. The 
other players may blow and falter, but she is always ready 
to pick up the scene and carry it along. 

I've noticed this in relation to lighting, too. Sometimes 
an unexpected change in action will make it necessary 
for Shirley to look toward an unusually strong light. Like 
any child, she doesn't like looking into high-powered lamps. 
But, unlike most children, she never shows it. She'll ful- 
fill the requirements, take as brief as possible a glance 
toward the offending lamp, and then "cheat" a trifle one 

Continued on page 100 



Cameramen on location 
in the desert near Yuma, 
Arizona, are working 
under difficulties in 
shooting this scene from 
the Technicolor produc- 
tion, ''The Garden of 
Allah.'’ Marlene 
Dietrich and Charles Boyer co-star in 
this David 0. Selznick production, 
under the direction of Richard Boles- 
lawski. Howard Greene, Photographer; 
Hal Rosson, Photographic adviser; W. 
A. Oettel, Studio Chief Electrician, 



Exceptional penetration and carrying power are required of a 
light source to pierce the obscuring clouds of a sand storm 
on the desert, but the carbon arc proved equal to the task. 


CARBON ARC LIGHTING MEETS EVERY DEMAND OF TIE CAMERA 


DSE 


r 


It is silent, cool and remarkably fast. 

It has the photographic qualities of daylight. 

It has proved a necessity for color productions. 
It Improves black and white photography. 


1 


NATIONAL 


L 




HIGH INTENSITY CARBONS 
MOTION PICTHRE STODIO CARBONS 


NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY, INC. 

Unit of Union Carbide om and Carbon Corporation 

CARBON SALES DIVISION, CLEVELAND, OHIO 
GENERAL OFFICES: 30 EAST 42ND STREET, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

BRANCH SALES OFFICES: NEW YORK - PlTTSBUReH - CHICAGO - SAN FRANCISCQ 




96 American Cinematographer • March, 1937 


T he recent introduction of a fundamentally 

new type of infra-red sensitive film, specifically de- 
vised for production use, has at a single stride ad- 
vanced cinematography much closer to the long-sought 
goal of filming nearly all exterior night-effect scenes by 
daylight. The new film is a product of the Agfa-Ansco 
laboratories, and is the direct result of close cooperation 
between the film-making engineers and film-using Cine- 
matographers. 

It is not merely a modification of the firm's previous 
type of infra-red sensitized film, which is definitely a special 
purpose emulsion, but an entirely new type of film for the 
making of production night-effects. At a conservative 
estimate, from 50 per cent to 70 per cent of the night 
scenes now made at night, by artificial light, can now be 
made better and more efficiently by day with the new film. 

Until quite recently, the making of daylight night-ef- 
fects has been based on the use of extremely heavy filters 
which overcorrect the sky to night-time darkness, combined 
with definite underexposure to obscure the remainder of 
the scene. Even with the earlier infra-red sensitized emul- 
sions, this general technique remained necessary, for while 
the sensitivity was extended into the infra-red region there 
nevertheless remained a considerable yellow-green sensi- 
tivity which necessitated the use of extremely heavy filters 
capable of completely absorbing these colors. 

Agfa's previous infra-red film, introduced over a year 
ago, was probably the first commercially available cine 
film of this tyoe with sufficient exposure speed in which 
this undesirable characteristic was eliminated. According- 
ly, it permitted the use of far lighter filters, such as the 
Wratten 29-F. This emulsion, however, still retained a 
relatively high degree of controst, and a sensitivity balance 
which made its use impractical for the more intimate 
scenes in which the flesh values of players was a most im- 
portant consideration. 

Full Exposure 

The new emulsion is intended definitely for production 
use. The contrast characteristic has been reduced to o 
point comparable to that of normal super-panchromatic 
emulsion. The color-sensitivity has been adjusted to a 
point where convincing night-effects are possible without 
sacrifice of flesh-tone rendition in even the most intimate 
shots. There is no yellow-green sensitivity; the maximum 
correction is had with the Wratten 29-F filter. The averall 
speed of the film shows a marked increase; the shadow- 
speed of the new film, especially, is definitely higher than 
that of ony previous film of its type. 

In this connection, it should be understood that night- 
effect negatives made with this new film are fully exposed; 
the effect is the result of filtering and sensitivity rather 



Production 

Night-Effects 
With Agfa s 

by A. Farciot 

than of underexposure. While it has generally been the 
case that filtered night-effects have had to be "printed 
for night" — usually at a printer light-setting definitely 
below normal — comparable effects photographed with the 
new film print normally, usually printing around light 15. 
They give convincing night-effects without loss of shadow- 
detail, and without exaggerated contrast. 

The keeping qualities of the new film are understood 
to be excellent; the Agfa experts state that it will keep 
quite as long as normal superpan film, and without special 
handling. 

Photographing night-effect scenes with this new film 
need not differ materially from the technique of making 
normal day-effects on conventional types of super-pan- 
chromatic. The Wratten 29-F filter has as yet been most 
generally used, and exposures have ranged from f:3.5 or 
less to f:2.3, according to light conditions. Any type of 
lighting may be employed. It has been found wise, how- 
ever, to avoid a direct back-light, since atmospheric dis- 
persion at this angle is generally so great as to whiten the 
sky beyond possibility of satisfactory correction. Outlining 
rim-lightings on people, produced by booster ' lights or 
reflectors, are very effective. 

May Put Actors in Shade 

In general, the most pleasing effects have been obtained 
with a cross-light, or with a diffused front (or semi-front) 
lighting modeled in the usual manner with reflectors or 
"booster" lights. It is by no means necessary to play the 
people in direct sunlight; excellent results have been had 
with the players in the shade, with reflectors or artificial 
front- lighting as would be used in making a normal scene 
under such conditions. 

^Vindows may be illuminated in the normal manner bv 
artificial light. The flames of torches and flares pick up 
very effectively. At present experiments with chemically- 
treated flares are beina conducted as the reflected light 
from more stronglv red-orange flames should also affect 
this film, ond would naturally simplify the problems of 
simulatina the illumination cast by such torches. 

Due to the fact that the night effect is produced by 
overall correction and not alone by overcorrecting the sky 
and underexposing elsewhere it is possible to achieve con- 
vincing niaht-effects with this film even in scenes where 
the sky does not figure. 

No change in make-up is necessary other than the 

Figure 1. Photographed on the new Agfa infra-red film by 
Victor Milner, A.S.C., and Dewey Wrigley, A.S.C. Three-inch lens 
at f:3.5 with Wratten 29-F filter; 2:30 P.M.; sun scrimmed on 
character, and M.P.A. light diffusion disc used. Photo courtesy 
Paramount Productions. 



March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 97 


Funddmentdlly 
New Type of 
Infrd-Red Film 


Edouart, A.S.C. 


substitution of the lip make-up closely comparable to that 
used for the old "blue transparency" process. To the eye 
and to conventional emulsions this lip rouge is virtually 
identical with the normal type; but where the new film 
lightens the conventional lip make-up it does not change 
the rendition of the other type, which while visually red- 
dish has yet enough blue in its composition to be comple- 
mentarily affected by the filtering used with the new film. 

Convincing Effects 

Tests made on this new film by various outstanding 
Paramount Cinematographers definitely indicate that it 
permits in many instances much more convincing night 
effects than either filming at night under artificial light, 
or by the previous methods of making filtered night-effects 
by day. 

Tests made with it by Victor Milner, A.S.C., in prepara- 
tion for his present production, for instance, have indicated 
its superiority to either previous method in scenes in which 
any considerable area is included. Hitherto, regardless of 
the method used, there was generally an increase in contrast, 
and little detail could be preserved except in the immediate 
foreground and in highlights. 

In closer shots often all that would be visible would be 
the actors' faces and shadowy figures moving against a 
black background. Using the new film, the scene appears 
much more nearly as it would normally appear on a moon- 
lit night, with a natural amount of detail visible in the 
shadows, and a considerably broader scale of gradation. 

Prominent distant objects, such as mountains, etc., re- 
main evident in the background of longshots and close 
angles alike, quite as they would naturally. "Practical" 
street lamps, torches, flares and the like give very natural 
effects, though it may be mentioned other tests indicate 
some experimentation is necessary before automobile head- 
lights will photograph wholly naturally. 

May Get New Dusk Range 

With only a reasonable amount of care in using reflect- 
ors or "booster" lights their beams can be made to appear 
less obvious than is often the case in nprmal day scenes. 
Night scenes in which the sky does not figure are very 
convincing, especially when highlighted by artificial light 
from within house windows, doors, etc., or with a little 
highlighting on walls from "boosters." 

Leo Tover, A.S.C., made some interesting tests of the 

Figure 2. No loss of flesh values in this night-effect made .on 
the new infra-red film by Victor Milner, A.S.C., and Dewey Wrig- 
ley, A.S.C. Photographed at 2:50 P.M. with a three-inch lens at 
f:2.7, Wratten 29-F filter, M.P.A. light diffusion disc; sun on 
actor scrimmed. Photo courtesy Paramount Productions. 


film in snowy mountain country, preparatory to using it on 
"I Met Him in Paris." Here, working with a subject and 
light conditions of extreme contrasts, the broader grada- 
tional scale of the new emulsion proved its value. From 
some of these tests, it would seem probable that a new 
range of twilight, dusk and even day effects may be ob- 
tainable with the new film and lighter filters. Parallel 
scenes, made in the conventional way with super-pan- 
chromatic film and a 72 filter, for night effect, appeared 
decidedly less convincing than those made on the new film 
with the Wratten "F." 

Henry Sharp, A.S.C., was probably the first Cinematog- 
rapher to use the film on actual production. Completing 
an exterior sequence of "Murder Goes to College" in the 
afternoon, with two night scenes to be made on the same 
set, he was able to film these shots at once, with the new 
film, rather than having to return at night. 

Paramount Pioneering Film 

And so in line with such a definite advance in night- 
effect photography, Ray Wilkinson, head of Paramount's 
camera department, became immediately active in the evo- 
lution and proving of the new film, taking advantage not 
only of its photographic superiority but also of the as- 
tonishing economic opportunities which can in all prob- 
ability save the industry enormous sums. 

"In one coming picture," he points out, "there are some 
tremendous night sequences, which we plan to film in two 
days using the new infra-red film. Otherwise, working 
by night, we could hardly expect to complete these scenes 
in less than three or four nights, at far greater expense — 
to say nothing of lessened personal and collective effi- 
ciency, which is always a factor in night work. 

"The saving to any average production in transporta- 
tion, electricity, equipment, labor and time — not to men- 
tion the inevitable unforeseen delays — should be as impor- 
tant a factor as the more convincing quality on the screen." 

No All-Embracing Panacea 

It should not be assumed that this new film is on all- 
embracing panacea for all types of night-effects. Definitely 
it is not. Some scenes will for some time to come be better 
filmed by conventional means. The use of the new film 
also calls for more careful coordination with the photo- 
graphic staff, especially in the cases of the director and 
art director. 

Such night scenes should naturally be scheduled for 
hours of favorable light-conditions. Costuming, set-paint- 
ing, and the like, should take the film into especial con- 
sideration. For example: 

Continued on page 103 




98 American Cinematographer • March, 1937 



A.S.C MEMBERS 


ON PARADE 


• James Van Trees, A.S.C., was one member of o quartet 
of cinematographers on UniversoTs ^^Stones Cry Out who 
attracted attention on the lot for his success in 
whipping the flu jinx that attacked the camera staff on 
the subject Harold Young aimed to finish in the course 
of time if the list of available photographers held out. 

Gilbert Warrenton, A.S.C., opened the ball with a great 
start, but Ole Man Flu got him down after a struggle. 
Then entered J. V. T. with an abundance of pep leavened 
with a full measure of sympathy for those who were un- 
able successfully to combat the flu specter. But O. M. F. 
even then had his number. 

Richard Fryer, A.S.C. , was the recipient of an emergency 
call to take charge of the photography on "Stones Cry 
Out," a title the sinister applicability of which seemed 
more and more negatively to appeal to those who wer.e 
trying to work on it. Then Ben Reynolds, A.S.C., got the 
hurry-up call, and none too enthusiastically responded as 
his immediate predecessor also took to his bed. 

But Van having almost started the picture had an un- 
bending ambition to finish it. When the fourth man on 
the list was found to be packing a temperature a retracing 
of those who had retired more or less indifferently revealed 
the second victim was ready to go again. And so he did 
And "Stones Cry Out" slid silently into the old can to the 
intense relief of the U's camera department. 

• Henry Sharp, A.S.C., for the past month has been re- 
ceiving congratulations on his marriage January 30 to 
Jeon A. Thayer. The American Cinematographer for the 
intervening weeks has been impatiently awaiting the op- 
portunity officially to add its good wishes to those of 
Henry's host of friends, wishes for a maximum of good 
health and of the blessings that go with life in harness, 
material and domestic. 

• Rudolph Mote, A.S.C., has gone to Big Pines on vaca- 
tion. With him went his skiis, the inactivity of which, 
if the truth be told, really was responsible for the trip. 
Singular indeed is it how a faithful follower of a craft the 
members of which aim at all times to keep their feet on 
the ground suddenly should be seized with an unquench- 
able urge to see how far he may lift his feet off the 
ground without resultant damage to the aforesaid eartii 
or to his own anatomy. 

• Charles G. Clarke, A.S.C., is the latest of the cinema- 
tographers to step from the camera to the directing post. 
He has been assigned to direct the making of M.G.M.'s 
"Pigskin Packers," which will bring to the screen a show- 
ing of the famous professional football team from Green 
Bay, Wis. 

• John W. Boyle, A.S.C., writes from Marseilles, France, 
he is on his way to Cairo. The Cairo you may be thinking 
about is not the one he is talking about. The message 
mentions a word or so about weather, something better than 
he recently has been experiencing seeming to be his urgent 
desire. So he was on his way to Egypt and not to Illinois. 
He announced his address as Mena House, Giza Pyramids, 
Cairo, Egypt. 


• John L. Herrmann, A.S.C., sends word from Miami — 
which is in Florida, that state where the cold is not, ac- 
cording to some — denying he had anything ta do with 
the big floods around the Ohio and the Mississippi. With- 
out even a remote tinge of noticeable regret at missing 
a part in the recording of that catastrophe, he explains 
his seeming indifference by intimating his cup on floods 
was filled to the brim last year in Johnstawn, Pitts- 
burgh and Wheeling. John at the time of writing was 
awaiting the coming of the big league ball players, the 
training af which he will cover. He wants to be remem- 
bered to all the bunch. 

• Hal Mohr, A.S.C., twenty-three years ago as an ex- 
ceedingly young man was cinematographer on "Money." 
The leading character actor of the production, which was 
made in Fairfax, Cal., was Jerry Ash. Hal now has finished 
directing "When Love Is Young," Universal's comedy of 
romance. Jerry Ash also was around about the picture, 
too, only it was Jerry Ash, A.S.C. You get one guess as to 
just what his duties were. 

• Hal Rosson, A.S.C., has been assigned by Metro and 
now is shooting "They Gave Him a Gun." W. S. Van Dyke 
is directing. 

• Gregg Tolond, A.S.C., has entered into a five-year 
agreement with Samuel Goldwyn under which he will direct 
as well as phatograph pictures. The cinematographer al- 
ready has a record of thirteen years in the camera depart- 
ment of the Goldwyn company, which is something of a 
record of itself. 

• Clyde De Vinno, A.S.C., has been assigned to shoot 
M.G.M.'s adaptation of Don Marquis' "Old Soak. There 
was reported to have been some lively competition among 
the boys to land in the spot, some even exploiting their as- 
serted qualifications adequately to fill the bill. The de- 
partment, however, insisted it was seeking its man on the 
drys' side of the fence. But the roar of the cinematogra- 
phers was as nothing to that coming from the character ac- 
tors. Some of the troupers insisted they could fill the title 
role like nobody's business if the prop department would 
just do its full duty. 

• Fred W. Jackman, A.S.C., had a plenty of good long 
looks at the old Father of Waters on damage bent. Pre- 
ceded by his son Fred W. Jackman, Jr., A.S.C., he flew from 
Hollywood to St. Louis with Amelia Earhart on the plane 
in which she plans a world flight. Arriving in St. Louis the 
two A.S.C. members chartered a plane and photographed 
the flooded area, proceeding as far south as Memphis. In 
Paducah, Ky., they entered the lobby of the Irving Cobb 
Hotel in a motorboat. In another town also in a motor- 
boat they entered a hatel via a second story window and 
departed in the same navel fashion. Father and son 
returned to Hollywood by a TWA plane after having been 
away a week. 

• Joseph Walker, A.S.C., among his associates in the Ca- 
lumbia studies for several weeks had built up quite a mys- 
tery around his goings and comings in the then near future. 
He was going east on most important business. He re- 

Continued on page 104 



March, 1937 o American Cinematographer 99 


CHAMPION 


EASTMAN Super X was used in the great 
majority of all 1936 feature productions 
...ill three out of every four ^^box-office 

ml 

champions”. . . in nine of the ^^best ten” 
pictures chosen hv the country’s critics. 
It coiitiimes as the uiiehalleiiged cliain- 
]>ioii among motion [lieture negative films. 
Eastman Kodak (Company, Rochester, N.Y. 
(J. E. Brulatour, Iiic., Distributors, Fort 
Lee, New York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 


EASTMAIV SUPER X 

PANCHKO>IATir AE<iATIVE 


100 American Cinematographer • March, 1937 


Lighting Shirley Temple 

Continued from page 94 


way or the other, covering it up with 
some bit of impromptu business. 

Naturally, we try to ovoid such things 
os much os possible. In the first place, 
we're fond of Shirley. In the second 
place, no child con be wholly noturul 
under blinding lights. 

So we've evolved o scheme of light- 
ing that really gives an indication cf 
what modern lamps and modern fast 
emulsions permit us to do in cutting 
down illuminotion without sacrificing 
quality. I've always considered myself 
a reasonably low-level lighter. But it 
took this experience to show me how far 
all of us are from taking full advantage 
of the opportunities offered by today's 
improved equipment and materials. 

Here's the problem. I've got to light 
Shirley with the minimum possible in- 
tensity. At the same time, my scene 
must retain a definite effect of bril- 
liance. The overall effect may be high- 
key or low-key; but there must always 
be something of the sparkle one asso- 
ciates with Shirley Temple. 

Baby Spots for Shirley 

Therefore the foundation of my light- 
ing scheme is a pair of baby spotlights 
with which I light Shirley. Yes, I mean 
those insignificant 500-watt "bon- 
bons." One of them, placed quite high 
and at the side most of Shirley's action 
is played ta, is my key-light. Normal- 
ly, it shines down upon her face, from 
the front. 

The second baby spot fills in from the 
side. It is usually lower than the key- 
light, and flooded more. The remaining 
side is filled in with a "broad," strongly 
diffused and placed well back. The top 
and back lighting, since Shirley doesn't 
have to face it, can if necessary be much 
stronger. Often in closer shots, how- 
ever, I use a baby spot even for this. 

Now all I've got to do is keep my 
general illumination at a sufficiently low 
level so that these "babies" penetrate 
the overall lighting. 

For this I've found one of the most 
valuable toals is the "Junior Solarspot 
Mole-Richardson brought out lost year. 
In a case like this, you've got to light 
precisely. Each lamp must da its full 


duty — and no more. You can't trust 
to diffusing heavily, for if you do your 
light grows hard to control. You can't 
work precisely with the old mirror-type 
lamps because of the obvious "hot rings" 
and "dark centers" you get os soon as 
you flood their beams. 

Here is where the "Morinc-lens" con- 
struction of those Solarspots proves its 
worth. I haven't yet been able to fine 
any shadows or hot-spots in their beams. 
And once you've focused a Junior you 
know its beam is all going where you 
want it. There's no "spilled light." 

Larger Lamps for Adults 

What's more to the point, I don't have 
to use two or three overdiffused lamps 
to do the work of one normally efficient 
ane. On several of the sets for "Stow- 
away" and most of them for the new 
picture I've had the set rigged exclu- 
sively with Solarspots. 

In those parts of the scene toward 
which Shirley doesn't have ta look I car 
often use larger lamps for lighting the 
adult players. The "Juniors" are very 
useful for this, particularly since their 
light can be so precisely controlled. 

We've worked out a little gadget which 
is very helpful in this phase of light- 
ing. We call it a "barndoar." It fits 
on to the lamp just like a diffuser. On 
the normal square metal base is a tube 
the same diameter as the Solarspot's 
lens, and about three inches long. At 
the end of this are two hinged flops 
about twelve or fourteen inches long. 
The whole assembly revolves, so that 
the flaps will close at any angle — verti- 
cally, horizontally, or anything between. 

The flaps of the barndoor act like 
goboes, but they can be handled much 
easier. Suppose Shirley is working in 
a scene with an older player who needs 
(and can stand) stronger lighting. 
Shirley may have to look in the direc- 
tion of one of these larger lamps. Well, 
that lamp is simply a Junior with a 
barndoor. 

The flaps of the barndoor are revolved 
until they work vertically. Then the 
lower flao is tilted up until it cuts the 
beam off Shirley. Thus protected, she 
can look directly at the lamp and not 


Our Regrets to Mr. Simon 

In a conversation with the editor of 
this magazine S. Sylvan Simon, Universal 
executive, called attention to statements 
credited to him in a January story which 
he says were not in conformity with 
his beliefs or his experience. Mr. Simon, 
whose books on theatrical matters are 
accepted in the profession as authori- 
tative, says the article in question was 
written by a free lance writer following 
a brief and casual chat on a stage. 
While some of the statements, Mr. Simon 
suggests, were recognized by his inti- 
mates in the industry as authentic, oth- 
ers were to the contrary. The American 
Cinematographer begs to assure Mr. 
Simon it regrets the occasion for com- 
plaint. 


be bothered. Moreover, it cannot inter- 
fere with the less intense lighting used 
on Shirley. 

It con easily be imagined, too, how 
much these handy accessories simplify 
the matter of goboeing light from any 
part of the set. 

Same Problem Outdoors 

When we go outdoors on location the 
same general problem enters. I always 
scrim the direct sunlight from Shirley. 
And as even experienced odults dislike 
facing reflectors I do all my modeling 
with artificial light. Usually I employ 
Solarspots and baby spots. 

On this picture, we have one location 
representing a cantonment in India. 
Here we've had the problem of suggest- 
ing heat without building up unduly 
"hot" light levels. One sequence, for 
instance, takes place on the veronda of 
an officer's bungalow. I needed plenty 
of light in that porch to balance the 
strong sunlight outside. Ordinary 
inkies weren't adequate, and the sound 
men wouldn't let us use a generator big 
enough to power arcs. So I used one of 
the big Senior Solarspots — and the trick 
was done. 

In one sequence of the lost picture, 
"Stowaway," I also made good use of 
these larger units. The set represented 
the deck of a steamship, and I needed 
a strong, uniform key- light to represent 
sunlight. The answer was three Seniors 
lined up outside, overlapping at the 
stanchions supporting the upper deck. 
The effect could not have been more 
convincing hod I used arcs — and it was 
obtained easily and economically. 

But somehow the technicalities of 
lighting don't seem so important when 
I'm shooting a scene like one in "Stow- 
away" which ran for over three pages 
of dialog. It's quite something to see 
any seven-year-old do such a long scene 
without missing a line — but when fully 
half of her dialog is in Chinese (and 
still never a blow-up!) — well, even a 
cinematographer has a right to applaud! 


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March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 101 


// 


Michael Strogoff Registers 
Genuine Triumph in Technique 


V ERNON L. WALKER, A.S.C., head 
of the special camera effects de- 
partment at RKO studios, replied tc 
the compliments of the editor on the 
work of his department and the whole 
camera crew on the making of "Michael 
Strogoff" by declaring with enthusiasm 
that Joseph August, A.S.C., the director 
of photography on the picture, had 
"done a beautiful job, that he had 
matched right on the button the foreign 
land shots with the home close-ups; that 
not only was there craftsmanship but 
artistry in abundance." 

One of the outstanding incidents in 
connection with the making of "Mi- 
chael Strogoff" is that, where ordinarily 
the producer for some inconceivable 
reason attempts to hide the fact a pic- 
ture was photographed abroad, in the 
present instance there is open-hanaea 
acknowledgement by an RKO execurive 
whose business it is to speak for the 
company that RKO purchased a French 
version of a German picture that hud 
been photographed in Bulgaria. 

Furthermore, explaining the convic- 
tion of "authority" conveyed to the per- 
son out front as he looks on these wide 
vistas of open country, it is declared that 
of the original nine reels brought to 
this country 2800 feet were cut into 
the picture as it is now being shown. 
That explains why the layman is under 
the illusion he is looking on Russian 
backgrounds. 

Photographic Technique 

Let us examine the map and see how 
this illusion thing was established. 
Southern Russia is bounded on the west 
by the Black Sea. As this witness con- 
strued the locale from the picture this 
was the spot. Bulgaria, where it was 
photographed, is bounded on the east 
by the same bady of water. The lotrei 
country's latitude — and latitude is a 
most important factor in matching 
backgrounds — is around 42 north. Sac- 
ramento River, where some of the 
matching shots were taken, is 39. Here 
in Triunfo, an hour's easy ride from 
Los Angeles, where some of the most 
effective matching was dane, the lati- 
tude was around 33. It is probable the 
disparity in latitude was campensated 
for by the elevation of the Triunio lo- 
cation. 

What cannot be ignored wherever 
motion picture men and women fore- 
gather is that one of the major factors 
contributing to the triumph of o pro- 
duction — its transformation from per- 
haps a subject that may have been 


ordinarily "just another picture" into one 
of unquestioned box office value and 
human appeal — is in the work of its 
photographers, the men who took a sub 
ject that had been made under the 
technique of a decade ago and by the 
employment of the most modern de- 
vices and implements and the highest 
degree of technical skill gave to the 
world a picture that will rank in the 



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upper brackets of successful productiens. 
Photographers, amateurs as well as 
professionals, will be interested in more 
than the technical excellencies of this 
Jules Verne subject of the period of 
1 870. Without a moment's warning, 
there is suddenly pitchforked into the 
consciousness of the screen follower the 
face of a woman, a mother, the mother 
of Michael Strogoff. It is a face of 
tragedy, one that in its depth, its poig- 
nancy, will overmatch anything this re- 
porter ever has seen on the screen. 

Strangely enough, this is the second 
picture in which Fay Bainter has 
worked. Her first one, "Quality Street," 
has not yet been released. It is a singu- 
lar occurrence when a player makes a 
tenstrike in her second picture, with 
the first one yet to come and to reap 
the inevitable reward awaiting it by 
reason of the sudden screen eminence 
of one of its actors whose quality as a 
portrayer of life hitherto hod been 
known only to the followers of the stage. 

Film Exports Gain 
Ten Million Feet 
Over Previous Year 

Preliminary figures of American mo- 
tion picture film exports for the year 
1936 show a 10,000,000 feet increase 
in negative and positive sound and silent 
films over those exported during 1935, 
according to compilations made by 
Nathan D. Golden, chief of the Motion 
Picture Section of the Electrical Division, 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce. 

For 1936 a total of 209,651,404 
linear feet of motion picture film, with 
a declared value of $4,531,639 were ex- 
ported to 101 markets throughout the 
world, as compared with 190,690,621 
linear feet, valued at $4,597,339 for 
1935. 

The 1 936 exports of motion picture 
film are the largest since the year 1930, 
when 274 million feet of film were ex- 
ported. 

During 1936 exports of negative and 
positive sound film to the three leading 
markets were in the following order; 

Argentine, as in 1935, was the largest 
consumer of American motion pictures in 
point of footage. 

Second in point of footage, but still 
our best revenue producing market, is 
the United Kingdom, importing during 
1936 18,071,389 feet, valued at $525,- 
031, as compared with 15,874,353 feet 
with a value of $476,392 during 1935. 

Brazil again maintains third position 
as a leading consumer of American pic- 
tures. During 1936 it imported 12,- 
785,110 feet of films from the United 
States, valued at $252,655, as compared 
with 1 1 ,568,669 feet, valued at $247,- 
125 for 1935. 


102 American Cinematographer • March, 1937 



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They Make Pictures in India 

Continued from page 91 

G. Quiribet, who succeeded Hal Sintz- 
enich, A.S.C., as technical advisor for 
Kodak, Ltd., in Bombay, and Agfa's 
capable consultant, Mr. Hirlekar, have 
done excellent work in helping the In- 
dian studios to modernize their labora- 
tories. In spite of their efforts, however, 
some of the smaller plants have fine de- 
veloping machines which are left unused 
in favor of the more traditional rack- 
and-tray systems. 

India really needs coaching in Amer- 
ican cutting technique, too. Although 
their editing is artistically satisfactory, 
their methods of handling the film are 
too often slipshod. Often, you will find 
a cutting room floor completely covered 
with film — positive or negative — while 
the cutter sits cross-legged and works 
with bore hands. Inevitably, virtually 
oil Indian pictures ore seriously blighted 
by dirt and scratches. 

Waxing machines, too, could be used 
more advantageously. Too often the 
film is not waxed, and the first projec- 
tionist who uses o print spoils it by lu- 
bricating it with projector oil. 

The overage Indian production is 
from 12 to 18 reels in length, either of 
on Indian mythological or historical sub- 
ject, or on Indionized adaptation of o 
modern Hollywoodesque subject. The 
tempo is usually quite slow-moving. 
Sometimes o single song will lost o full 
reel. 


Six Weeks For Majors 

Production schedules and budgets ore 
the most nearly American of any in the 
Orient. The overage major production 
has o schedule of from six weeks to two 
months or more, and budgets up to os 
high os 1 50,000 rupees, which is about 
$65,000. This is six or seven times 
what would be spent on o feature in 
Japan or the Philippines. The returns 
ore proportional, for where on Indian city 
may hove one theatre playing American 
and European films it will hove o score 
playing native productions. 

Altogether, the Indian film industry is 
advancing. The Motion Picture Society 
of Indio is doing a great work in foster- 
ing cooperation among its technicians, 
immensely aided by Kodak's Quiribet and 
Agfa's Brunn and Hirlekar. Such Amer- 
ican journals os The Cinematographer do 
much to help India's photographers keep 
up with the times. 

It is unfortunate that so few from 
Indio hove hod o chance to receive 
training in Hollywood's studios, for such 
cooperation would be mutually advan- 
tageous, and would help o very sincere 
group of artists in their efforts to moke 
better pictures for o huge audience 
which, due to the language barrier, con 
rarely patronize Hollywood's pictures. 







March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 103 


New Type Infra-Red 

Continued from page 96 

Paramount, pioneering the use of 
this film, has repainted its entire 
"Brownstone Street" in o special bluish- 
gray. This color has been standardized 
under the name "infra-red blue." It is 
equally good for day scenes and infra- 
red night scenes. It has no red in its 
composition. 

Two reds may be identical both to 
eye and to normal super-panchromatic 
films, but with the new infra-red film 
one may photograph dark, due to an im- 
perceptible bluish content, while the 
other will be rendered light. Certain 
natural greens reflect a surprising 
amount of infra-red and accordingly 
photograph unnaturally white with this 
film. 

One production in which it is planned 
to use the new film is taking this into 
account, and much af the location's 
natural foliage will be sprayed a more 
satisfactory photographic green to pre- 
vent mishaps. 

Wilkinson is pursuing a remarkably 
far-sighted policy in making use of this 
film. While fully awake to the photo- 
graphic and economic advantages of the 
film, and definitely planning its use 
wherever advisable (one production 
alone has night sequences which wi'l 
expose more than 20,000 feet of the 
new stock), Wilkinson is making no ef- 
fort to force its use upon Cinematogra- 
pners unacquainted with the film. Every 
member of the Paramount staff is given 
an opportunity to study the tests al- 
ready made, to make more of his own — 
and then to use his best judgment. 

It is a tribute to both that policy and 
the new film that the Cinematographers 
who have seen and tested it are with- 
out exception anxious to use it on their 
own productions. 


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104 American Cinematographer • March, 1937 




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A.S.C. On Parade 


Continued from page 98 

quested, in fact most urgently requested, 
that for several weeks or even a month, 
he be relieved of any assignments. He 
got the relief, but the curiosity of the 
bunch was unsatisfied. 

Then one fine morning Joe burst in 
on the department after parking o shiny 
cor. With him were Mr. and Mrs. Frank 
Copra and Miss Juanita Pollard. Joe 
admitted he was on his way to get mar- 
ried. But first he had an appointment 
to look in on Harry Cohn, who slipped 
the cinematographer a bouquet that 
made his eyes snap. 

Then Joe walked out on the studio, 
leaving his amazed associates entirely 
flat. Nor have they seen him since. It 
was learned later he did get married 
and that he and his bride left immedi- 
ately for New York. Mrs. Walker is an 
expert amateur photographer. So it is 
to be assumed that when Joe gets back 
on the job he will be extra careful of 
his lighting. 


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March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 109 


AMATEUR 

MOVIE 

SECTION 



SOCIETY 

OF AMATEUR 

CINEMATOGRAPHERS 


BOARD OF REVIEW 

John Arnold, President, A.S.C., Executive Direc- 
tor of Photography, M.G.M. Studios 


Karl Struss, A.S.C., Director of Photography, 
Paramount Studios, Academy Award Winner, 
1928 


Fred Jackman. Treas., American Society of 
Cinematographers 

Dan Clark, A.S.C., Director of Photography, 
"Country Doctor," 20th Century-Fox 

David Abel, A.S.C., Director of Photography of 
Fred Astaire Productions, R.K.O. Studios 


Contents . . . 


"KING of Allah's Garden" 

Is Bay State Movie 

By Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Oscar Bean 1 1 1 

COACHING an Olympic Team 'with 
16MM 

By J. Robert Hubbard.... 112 

YOU JUST Can't Help Doing These 
Transition Things 

By William Stull, A.S.C 1 14 

AMATEUR Movie Club News...... 116 

BACKGROUND vs. Foreground 
Lighting 

By John Arnold, A.S.C 1 18 

CAMERA Should Be Instrument of 
I llusion 

By Frank Good, A.S.C ....119 

WHEELS OF INDUSTRY 120 

KODASLIDE Reproduces Stills with 

Great Brilliance 121 

CINEMATOGRAPHERS have Language 
All Their Own 

By Joseph August, A.S.C 122 

NEW BAUSCH and 

Lomb Laboratory .1 23 


Next Month . . . 

Next month readers of the Amateur Movie 
Section will find entertainment and information 
in an interview by William Stull, A.S.C., with 
one of the outstanding amateur photographers 
in the country. 

So also may possibly followers of the Pro- 
fessional Section, for the man interviewed, 
while an amateur, has traveled far — over the 
waters of the world and in the progress of his 
hobby. We haven't seen the story, but we 
know the two men and their work. 




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nviable reputation could never have been built. 

'ICTOR’S Greatest Superiority, however, lies in those 
■XTRA refinements and features that have raised l6mm 
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hat are not to be had in any other equipment at any 
rice! ASK today that those Superior Features be 
emonstrated. 






March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 111 


// 


King of Allah s Garden Is Bay State Movie 


by 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Oscar Bean 

A lthough there is some similarity to our title ond 
that of o very excellent recent technicolor film, our 
story is os different os is the idea behind it. 

With nine years of 16mm fun and experience in mak- 
ing four travel, two industrial, two Kodachrome shorts and 
one historical production, we wanted to do a feature 
length photoplay. 

After a visit to Hollywood studios and outdoor loca- 
tions in 1933, we wondered what we might do here in our 
own "back yard," using New England's varied seasons and 
natural lacations. 

The scenario was our own — concerning the difficulties 
confronting a British telegraph company in maintaining 
communications between Uganda and the Sudan, A story 
requiring such foreign locale — Africa's desert, veldt and 
jungle — was written with the object of demonstrating to 



Stanley and Maryjane Bean, authors and producers 
of the 16mm “The King of Allah’s Carden.” The 
picture was enlarged from film. The location is 
the New England coast and was designed to 
simulate an African desert. 


T he writers of this story, Stanley and Maryjane Bean, of 
Amesbury, Mass., admit the subject they have here de- 
scribed is a 16mm production with a definite purpose. As 
in the early days of the screen the new and necessarily hard- 
pushed professional picture producers used the locale of 
Fort Lee in New Jersey as a background tor wild western 
tales, so these New Englanders created African desert, 
veldt and jungle out of Massachusetts sand dunes tumbled 
about by a raging wintry Atlantic. Among bodies with 
which Mr. Bean is connected are the Stanart Motion Picture 
Club and the National Geographic Club. The writers also 
make no attempt to conceal that what began as a hobby 
may prove to be something else again — but nevertheless 
with them the making of pictures continues to be a hobby. 


our audiences the cinema possibilities of our northeastern 
states. 

With five on the production staff and nine in the cast 
we went out to prove our point — a little of Hollywood in 
New England. 

Cur desert was several acres of rolling sand on an island 
pounded by the stormy Atlantic. We began the desert 
photography in March after the winter's winds had built 
large dunes and smoothed the surface of its few wild grasses. 
The sun at this time of year gave us long shadows in early 
afternoon. 

Jungle a Swamp 

Our jungle was comprised of a swampy woodland, com- 
pletely overgrown with wild grapes and a wicked, thorn- 
covered vine locally called "devil-wire." Through this 
"hardly penetrable jungle" we cut paths where the action 
was to take place. These scenes were completed before 
telltale leaves had even budded. 

In both jungle and desert backgraunds we were able 
to work without recognizable native plants or trees break- 
ing the atmosphere. We did a number of scenes in Koda- 
chrome, to capture the vivid colors which our warm spring 
months supply — to duplicate, if possible, the gorgeous hues 
of late-afternoon reflections on glistening sand and the 
rich verdure of the tropics. 

Our oasis and veldt were most difficult to obtain. To 
prove our point we could not resort to artificial settings 
or make use of props. A large spring near a brook was 
the ideal water-hole except for its background — elm and 
pine trees! The shooting angle was overcome by erecting 
a platform from which we could follow the action using o 
range only to the base of the trees. We played up the 
close-range features of our "oasis," which was overhung 
with long grasses and a number of giant ferns, as the 
"native" villain skulked before the lens. 

Next, the scenario called for a long-shot with a wide 
frontage of "open veldt." We went back along the sea 
coast, but each spot visited continually balked us with 
familiar and too numerous trees in the foreground. 

"Fort" is Written In 

A member of the cast suggested an airfield not far 
from a beach which was grass covered, although always 
mown. We visited the spot which was ideal — at least a 
half-mile wide and an unbroken vista for two miles, with 
only sparsely placed scrub growth breaking the skyline. 
We waited till late autumn however to make these scenes 
when all machine marks were obliterated. 

Perhaps the most interesting filming was that of "Fort 
Cecil," the scene of considerable action. We had had this 
place in mind long before "The King of Allah's Garden" 

Continued on page 127 


112 American Cinematographer • 


March, 1937 


y m pic Team with 


Coaching an O 

D espite his nickname, I don't think Harold 

("Dutch ') Smith was exactly a master of the German 
language last spring when he signed up to coach Ger- 
many s Olympic diving team. It was reasonably certain, 
too, that many of his pupils would not understand English. 
Under sucn circumstances, conversation just isn't, and 
teaching becomes a matter of pantomime. 

Unfortunately, tne kind of fancy diving that makes up 
the required routine of the Olympiad doesn't particularly 
lend itself to accurate pantomime. Even if, like "Dutch," 
you are an Olympic champion and can do all the dives to 
perfection, it takes more than pantomime or demonstra- 
tion to put over the fact that in one dive, just as you are 
three-quarters through your second backward somersault, 
you throw your head forward, while in another dive which 
looks almost exactly like the first, you throw your head 
backward. 

Those things happen so fast in a dive . . . and not even 
an Olympic champion can dive in slow-motion! 

Slow motion! Say, there was an idea — movies! So 

"Dutch" rounded up me and my Filmo, and we set to 
work to make a slow-motion picture of the complete 
Olympic diving routine, the first time this had been done. 

Diving By Script 

First of all, we prepared a skeleton scenario for our 
picture. This was simply a list of the required dives, in 
the order they follow in Olympic competition. This didn't 
have to be very detailed, for Dutch knows the dives and 
their order by heart. When we got to the actual shooting, 
perhaps once in ten or a dozen dives, Dutch would glance 
at the script to see what dive came next. 

The script was intended mainly os a guide to me, 
both in planning my shots and in editing the finished pic- 
ture. Believe me, I needed it, for there were no less than 
eighty different dives, and some of them look mightily 
alike if you're not an expert. 

At any rate, we prepared our script ("Catalog would 
be more correct," remarks the Mrs.), and repaired to the 



Harold (“Dutch”) Smith and “script girl” on location. 


16 mm Movies 


by 

J. Robert Hubbard 


El Mirador plunge at Palm Springs to make our picture. 
Dutch Smith worked a triple play as cast, director and 
producer. My motor-driven Filmo and M were photo- 
graphic staff, reinforced by 1500 feet of Panchromatic 
reversal film. Mrs. Hubbard went along for the ride— 
and was pressed into service as "script girl." 

inconspicuous Backgrounds 

One of the most important things in making a film of 
this nature is to have an inconspicuous background. Scen- 
ery, fine architecture and pretty girl bathers are all right, 
but any of them would tend to distract attention from the 
niceties of fancy diving technique. We were rather lucky. 

Dutch is universally liked, and when the bathers learned 
what he was trying to do they agreed to stay at the other 
end of the pool, well out of the picture. Behind the spring- 
boards was a fairly high stucco wall, which made an ex- 
cellent background for fhe lower shots. Beyond the wall 
was a group of dark green trees, the only undesirable 
feature of the location from our viewpoint. 

Beyond this there was only the clear blue sky as a 
background — no buildings, telephone-poles. Or distant 
traffic to confuse our shots. 

The neutral tone of the stucco wall was perfect for a 
background — as far as it went. The sky was brought to 
just the right neutral gray tone with a 4x yellow filter. 
The only disturbing element was the dark green foliage 
in between. For a while we considered putting up a white 
canvas backstop to conceal this, but finally we decided 
against it, as the day was windy and sure to ripple the 
canvas embarrassingly. 

The 4x filter, incidentally, was useful in another way. 
Dutch, after a season in the open under Palm Springs' 
desert suns, was tanned to a magnificent dark bronze. The 
filter lightened this tan sufficiently to show it as a tan, 
but not as absolute blackness. 

Two Days' Shooting 

With the exception of two or three close shots showing 
such details os the correct way to hold the hands, the 
proper walking and running approaches along the spring- 
board and the like, we shot our entire picture at the "slow- 
motion" speed of 64 frames a second. 

This, while it may not be as perfect for slowing down 
diving as the 128-frame speed of the special super-speed 
Filmo, proved completely satisfactory. It had the advantage 
of being more economical of film, and it is always pos- 
sible, when one wants to study such movement closer, to 
slow the' projector and increase the apparent "slow-mo- 
tion" effect. 

Using regular Panchromatic reversal film and the 4x 
filter, the exposures ranged from f:4' to f:4.5. This was 
a necessary compromise in exposure between the low ex- 
posure indicated for the sky and the brilliantly reflective 


March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 113 


water ot the pool and the much higher exposure indicated 
for Smith's bronzed body. 

We worked for two solid days photographing our dives. 
Fortunately, the pool was so situated that we got a good 
cross-light both morning and afternoon. This lighting was 
almost perfect for our purpose, for it gave a very pleasant 
modeling on Dutch's figure, with enough high-lighted area 
to contrast well with all parts of the background. 

This is important, for unless the background is a single 
expanse of one neutral tone and the diver properly lit, 
there is always the danger that at some point in the 
scene the diver's body may seem to merge into the back- 
ground, losing important technical details. 

Filmed With One-Inch Lens 

All of the dives were shown in long-shots, which were 
filmed with a standard f:2.7 Cooke lens of 25mm (one 
inch) focus. One or two shots illustrating special details, 
such as foot-action on the springboard, were made with 
two-inch and four-inch telephoto lenses; but speaking 
generally a one-inch lens is oil that one needs for this 
work. 

Thorough rehearsal is necessary if pictures like these 
are to be of value. Our routine was simple enough; Dutch 
would practice each dive until he felt he was at top form, 
and I would practice "following" his movement through 
the finder until I was sure I could make the shot per- 
fectly. Then we'd make the scene. If the dive wasn't per- 
fect, we would retake it. If it was, we'd go on to the next 
dive. 

When you see these dives on the screen, with Dutch 
floating through them in slow-motion, it looks as though 
it must have been easy to follow the movements with a 
one-inch lens. Actually, it was quite hard — especially with 
the more intricate dives from the three-meter board. 

The dive actually was four times as fast as it appears 
on the screen, and shooting a big fellow like Dutch doing 
a double somersault with a couple of twists thrown in — -and 
doing it without leaving a few arms and legs out of the 
picture — is definitely a tricky task. 

Script Helps in Editing 

As we filmed each dive the script girl checked it off 
against the list in the script, noting how many "takes" 
we made of each, and which one was the okehed one. 

When the film came back from the laboratory, we broke 
it down into individual scenes and eliminated the NG'd 
takes. Then we arranged the dives in their correct order 
and started splicing. Most of the dives had been shot in 
their proper order; but a few of the more intricate ones 
toward the end ot the first day's shooting had been post- 
poned until the next morning, when Dutch felt fresher, 
and could do them better. 

The picture's total length was about 780 feet, which 
included eighty dives and as many titles. The film, though 
one continuous production, was broken up into two reels. 
Reel One is devoted to dives from the low (one-meter) 
board. Reel Two is devoted to the dives from the three-meter 
(ten-foot) board. The former scenes were all made from 
a normal eye-level viewpoint. 

The scenes of the dives from the higher board were 
made from a viewpoint about even with the high board. 
Since at the start of the picture we showed close shots 
of the proper aporoaches to the springboard, both walking 
and running and such details, we saved a good deal of 
footage by only showing the dives themselves. 

Titles Kept Simple 

Since the film was made to aid in coaching divers who 
might not know much English, we kept the titles very 
simple. Naturally, we had to collaborate on them. Dutch 
noted down the proper name of each dive and any notes 
on form he thought fit. Then I boiled down the wording 


to the minimum. Ultimately, the titles were reduced to 
a mere statement of the officiol designation of the dive, 
and its sub-type, with the briefest of technical notes, sucn 
as "Aim inner arm toward point of entry." The picture 
told the rest of the story. 

Diving Films Make Sensation 

That, incidentally, gives one o good criterion by which 
to judge whether or not he has been successful in making 
a picture of this type. If you find your film needs long- 
winded explanatory titles to make its meaning clear, the 
man at the camera has failed. After all, the only reason 
for moking a picture is to tell something that can't be QOt 
across with mere words. If the picture needs wordv 
titles to complete its story, you can take it as a c.ear sig- 
nal something is wrong with the picturemaking. 

The way the athletic world has received the picture sur- 
prised botn of us. We realized it was the first time all of 
the Olympic dives had been recorded on film for a study 
of diving technique, but we hadn't expected to create such 
a sensation. The Germans, of course, were enthusiastic. 

Colleges Buy Prints 

Then, after the Olympic Games, a University in Johan- 
nesburg, South Africa, asked to buy a print. Here in this 
country coaches at Yale, Princeton, Stanford and many 
other colleges have followed suit, with more heard from 
almost daily. Fortunately, after cutting the original re- 
versal film, we had made a duplicate negative, so all 
prints are equally good, without scratches or any signs 
of projection-wear such as would have been inevitable had 
we not made the dupe negative at once. 

Making this picture was mighty interesting, but if you 
imagine it was ploy, consider this. Counting rehearsals, 
extra takes, and all, Dutch Smith did well over 200 dives 
to give the 80 perfect ones shown in the picture. Well 
over half of these were done from the high board, and in 
addition to diving Dutch had to climb more than ten feet 
up to the board each time. 

When we finished those dives, Irving Berlin, who was an 
interested spectator, figured that in addition to his diving, 
Dutch had climbed nearly half a mile straight up — just 
getting out of the water! 

As if that wasn't enough for him, after the day's work 
was through, Dutch would remark with a grin: "Come on 
in. Bob, the water's fine!" And we would spend half an 
hour swimming and diving — just for fun. 



“Dutch” Smith on his way to the water. 


114 American Cinematographer • March, 1937 


y ou HEAR A LOT about the subject of "transitions” 
in discussions of professional movies. When you go 
to the theatre you often see so many intricate "wipes," 
"montages" and such that you are likely to limit your 
thoughts of transitions to these tricks, and then to dismiss 
the whole subject as something too involved for amateur 
filming. 

Some of these intricacies are, it must be admitted, rather 
beyond the scope of any amateur except perhaps the fel- 
low with a Cine-Kodak Special and a world of patience. 
But they are by no means the whole of transitions. 

The truth of the matter is that as long as we make 
movies, professional or amateur, we simply can't help mak- 
ing transitions. Every time we end one scene and start 
another we've made a transition. Every time we splice 
two scenes together we've made a transition. Every time 
we join two groups of scenes together we've made a transi- 
tion. 

Reduced to the simplest terms, a transition is a change 
from one filmed idea to another. That idea may be sub- 
ject-matter, place, time or action. The change may be 
great or small. On the screen, it can be abrupt or smooth 
— quick or gradual, according to how one handles his 
transition. 


Direct Cut Simplest Transition 

The most elementary transition is the direct cut. It is 
also the most abru.ot, and it can be the most confusing. 
At one moment one scene may be on the screen; a six- 
teenth of a second later something entirely different may 
be screening. 

This is the logical transition to use between closely re- 
lated individual scenes. When you cut from a long-shot 
of a given action to a closer shot of the same action, the 
transition is excellent, for there is no waste motion — no 
time lost. When from a shot of one person doing or say- 
ing something you cut to a shot of another person obvious- 
ly watching him or listening, again the transition is good, 
for you've taken the quickest and most direct way. 

On the other hand, if you try to use direct cuts between 
sequences, you are likely to confuse the audience, unless 
the action or setting of the sequences is very closely related. 
Such a transition is so abrupt a person watching it on the 
screen has no time to readjust his mind from one line of 
thought to the other. 

Fades 

The fade-out and fade-in are the most all-round useful 
of all transitions. The fade-out is as positive as the period 
at the end of a sentence. It says beyond contradiction, 
"This is the end of this idea." The fade-in is just as posi- 
tive. It asserts, "Here comes a new idea — be ready for it!" 



Two strips of waterproof masking tape and fading 
chemicals will make a wipe like this. 


If You Make 
M ovieS/ Amateur 


Or Professiona 


By William 


Used together, the fade-out and the fade-in give a smooth 
and positive change from one thought to another, and at the 
same time give the auditors that fraction of a second's 
pause necessary to readjust their minds from one train of 
thought to another. 

Fortunately, fades are among the easiest transitions to 
make, whether you make them in the camera, or after 
the film is processed. 

The simplest way to make a fade in the camera is by 
closing or opening the lens. But if you are shooting out- 
doors, with your lens already well stopped down, you've 
very little leeway left for fading — not enough, certainly, 
to fade completely out. In an f:16 light, for instance, 
you'll still get too much exposure for the dark end of your 
fade even if the lens is closed to its smallest stop, which 
with sub-standard lenses is usually about f:22. 

If you were using a filter you would probably have your 
lens much wider open, and you could get a definite fade: 
but your scene may not always call for a filter. An easy 
way to get around this is to use a Neutral Density filter^ — 
one which has no coloring to affect the color-rendition of 
your scene, but is simply a dense gray-black, to affect ex- 
posure-values and lessen contrast. In that same f:16 
light, if you use for example a 1 .00 Neutral Density filter, 
you will have to shoot with your lens opened to f:5.1' to 
get the same relative exposure. This gives ample range 
for lens-fades. 

The various fading-glasses on the market are simply 
graduated Neutral Density filters which can be moved 
across the lens to make a fade. 

Making Fades On Finished Film 

A year or two ago the sub-standard filmer who, after 
he had shot his picture, discovered that he wanted fades 
was out of luck. Dr. Loyd Jones, A.S.C., of the Kodak Re- 
search Laboratory, had evolved a formula which produced 
fades chemically on developed positive or reversal film, but 
the chemicals were hard to get. I was unable to obtain 
them even in Hollywood; and though substitutes were avail- 
able, they were like most substitutes, and didn't work so 
satisfactorilv. 

Since then the man I tried to get those dyes from, T. R. 
Barrabee of the Dye Research Laboratories, has devised a 
compound that enables anyone to make his own fades 
easily. It is marketed as "Fotofade." You simply add 
the proper amount of water to the dry chemicals, and your 
solution is ready. Wet your film in water for a half a 
minute and clip a weight at the end you want darkest in 
your fade. 

Then drop the weighted end into the solution frame by 
frame. When your fade is long enough, give the film a 


March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 115 


You Just Cant 
Help Doing Th ese 
Transition Things 


Stull, A.S.C. 


shake and pull it out quickly. Rinse it in clear water 
(preferably circulating) for fifteen or twenty seconds, 
squeegee the film between moist chamois — and when the 
film is dry you will have a perfect fade. It's as simple as 
that! 


Lap Dissolves 

The lap-dissolve is on extension of the fade-out and 
fade-in combination, with the fades superimposed. Un- 
fortunately, it has to be done in the camera. If your cam- 
era is one of the many not equipped to wind the film 
backwards, you can still make dissolves — if you will work 
painstakingly and carefully. 

First, you mark a definite starting point on the film. 
An easy way to do this is to remove the lens and mark 
crosses on several frames with a grease-pencil. Then you 
make your scene in the usual way, carefully counting off 
the footage. Suppose your scene runs five feet, and then 
you fade aut in two more feet. Very well, put on your 
lens-cap, and run the rest of the roll through, unexposed. 

Now rewind the film. Bring it back to the starting- 
point you marked. Again with the lens-cap over the lens, 
run through the five feet of your scene, checking this either 
by counts or by watching the footage meter, if your cam- 
era has an accurate one. When you ore set up on the 
next scene make your fade-in as usual, carefully keeping 
it to the same length as the previously exposed fade-out. 
If you have done things accurately you will have a per- 
fect lap-dissolve. 


Dissolves on Finished Film 

Obviously, you can't make a lap-dissolve chemically on 
finished film. In an emergency, though, it is possible to 
make them by a modification of optical printing. Project 
your scene, frame by frame, on a sheet of ground glass, 
and rephotograph it with a camera on the other side of 
the screen, exposing one frame at a time in stop motion. 
You will have to give the film in the projector a half-turn, 
so that the dissolve will be correct as to right and left. 
You will also be likely to have some difficulty in accurate- 
ly matching the contrast of your "duped" scenes. 

This single-frame work is very slow, so it is a good idea 
to make only the lap itself this way, with possibly a few 
frames at each end to simplify the matter of cutting it in- 
to its proper place. 

The dissolve is a rather tricky thing to use, however, 
for it is such an unobtrusive transition that it should be 
used only between ideas that are closely related. If it is 
used to join unrelated ideas, it can be even more confus- 
ing than a direct cut, for the change of thought sneaks up 
and catches the audience unawares. 


An interesting variation, used by several competitors m 
the various Cinematographer Contests, is to fade out in 
the usual manner and then, instead of lapping it with a 
fade-in, bring the following scene in with the old-fashioned 
"iris-in" effect produced by such devices as the Filmo 
"Iris Vignetter." 


Wipes 

The "wipe" in its various forms is an interesting transi- 
tion, but one that must be used sparingly. It is definitely 
a trick, and it usually calls attention to itself. 

Simple wipes can be made by sliding a dark card over 
the lens, far enough forward to give a reasonably sharp 
line. If your camera will wind back, you can, with care, 
make one s:ene wipe its predecessor off the screen. Other- 
wise, you can have both scenes wipe in the same direction, 
with a black interlude between. You can have one scene 
wipe out in one direction — say, sideways — and the other 
wipe in from another, say, uo from the bottom, or at an 
angle. 

A mechanical wiper like the Dumorr is very helpful in 
making these tricky transitions smoothly. 

Chemical Wipes 

Where a wipe involves the scene being wiped off by 
blackness, Fotofade is perhaps the easiest method of get- 
ting good wipes. In this case, you simply cover the parr 
of the film you want clear with waterproof masking tape 
and soak the film in Fotafade for two minutes. 

The tape must be applied on the emulsion side of the 
film, of course, and it must be pressed down firmly, so the 
solution can't creep under the edge and give a blurred line. 

If you apply two parallel strips, about one frame apart, 
and placed diagonally, you will have both wipes traveling 
in the same direction. If one tape slants in one direction, 
and the other in the opposite direction, the two wipes will 
be in opposite directions. If two tapes are crossed, the 
wipe will begin in the center of the picture and spread 
outward. To have the wipe start at the corners and spread 
inward, use a long narraw V of tape. Using such a wipe 
where two scenes ore spliced together, you can block out 
the splice completely by making the wipe after the scenes 
are spliced. 


Subjective Transitions 

All told, we have a pretty complete vocabulary of tran- 
sitions. There are direct cuts for quick changes between 
closely related shots. There is the fade-out and its com- 

Continued on page 124 



A wipe like this is a quick, positive transition, but 
calls attention to camera trickery. 



115 American Cinematographer • March, 1937 



AMATEUR MOVIE 


CLUB NEWS 


Los Angeles 8mm Club Turns 
Out in Fo rce for Excellent Program 

T he stated meeting of the Los Angeles 8mm Club 
was held in the Bell and Howell Auditorium, 716 
North Lo Brea avenue, February 9. Dr. F. R. Loscher, 
the president, was in the chair. Nearly 150 were present. 

The session was notable for the showing of two unusual 
amateur subjects, a travelogue in color by John E. Walter 
portraying the scenic beauties of the Northwest and a 
pictorial presentation by Robert W. Teorey, First Sergeant 
of Marines, of the President's 16,000-mile trip to South 
America. 

Bion Vogel, Randolph B. Clardy and C. W. A. Cadarette 
were named as a technical committee to give advice across 
a ten-minute period. The men named also will judge 
and analyze such films as members may submit to them. 

Mr. Clardy, a commercial artist, was appointed club 
artist, to have supervision of art work, designs and ad- 
vertising. E. J. Brouillette was named corresponding secre- 
tary, a new office made necessary by the increasing mem- 
bership. The ten members admitted since the first of the 
year brings the total to seventy. 

It was decided to rent the 8mm version of "The Covered 
Wagon," in six reels, for study of photography, cutting 
and titling technique. In order to cover the cost each 
one attending will be asked to contribute a dime. 

The president announced the publication of a club 
mogazine. It will make its appearance under the title of 
Thru the Filter. In a circular prepared for the members 
suggestions are made for contributions regarding some pet 
gadget, ideas for club advancement, committee reports, 
time saving kinks, etc. At the beginning it was the im- 
pression the new-comer would be a quarterly. 

William C. Wade, chairman of the leader strip commit- 
tee, presented each member two printed cards with the 
wording "Member Los Angeles 8mm Club," one on white 
stock for panchromatic film and the other on blue stock 
for kodachrome film. They ore designed to be used, as 
is in more detail set forth in onother column of this issue, 
in the members' titlers. 

At the request of the president, the retiring editor of 
the American Cinematographer, Charles J. VerHalen, 
presented George Blaisdell, his successor, who briefly re- 
sponded. 

One of the features of the evening was the contest 
showing of three films photographed by wives of members. 
These were Mrs. Alva Cadarette, who presented "They'll 
Do It Every Time"; Mrs. Arthur Svenson, "Smudge Smoke," 
and Mrs. Aleander Leitch, "A Day on the Range." The 
judges made the awards in the order named. The sub- 
jects displayed merit and were followed with particular in- 
terest by the men, who appeared to look upon them as a 
threat to their own standing in their own photographic 
world. 


C. G. Cornell showed "Wifey's Away," a comedy award- 
ed fourth prize in the December contest. 

Mr. Walter contributed in a large degree to the pleas- 
ure of the meeting when he showed his three-reel Koda- 
chrome "1936 Travelogue," the filmed story of a jour- 
ney along the Pacific coast and into the northwestern por- 
tion of the country. It was worth the walking of a mile 
for any one to get a peek at the beauties unfolded by 
the artistic photographer. 

The final subject on the program was something far out 
of the ordinary in the way of pictures amateur or profes- 
sional. It was contributed by First Sergeant Teorey. It 
was titled "The Cruise of the U.S.S. Chester to South 
America;" and was in three reels, 8mm. The Sergeant 
was stationed on the Chester, the convoy of the Presidem's 
Indianapolis. Like its immediate predecessor on the screen 
it was heartily applauded. 

The meeting adjourned at 1 1 :30. 

Littles’ Eighth Movie Party Will 

Draw on Nine Countries 

The eighth annual movie party is slated to be held in 
New York, April 2. For it Mr. and Mrs. Duncan MacD. 
Little have issued eighty invitations to friends living in 
ten states, three Canadian provinces and seven foreign 
countries. Forty of the number are confined to the metro- 
politon district. 

The setting for the party is the Salles des Artistes, 1 
West Sixty-seventh street. New York. The program is 
restricted to amateur motion picture films. These will 
have been produced by the guests of the evening. Owing 
to the large and increasing number of films now being 
submitted for this outstanding amateur exhibition it has 
been found necessary to leave to an independent commit- 
tee the selection of the subjects to be shown. 

No restrictions are imposed by the Littles as to sub- 
ject, classification or length, except that it was preferred, 
owing to limited time, no entries exceed the easy capacity 
of a 400-foot 1 6mm reel or a 200-foot 8mm. No con- 
siderotion can be extended to a 35mm subject. The final 
date for receipt of entries was February 27. 

Competition in the showings always has been scrupu- 
lously avoided. Selection will not mean the films to be 
screened are in any sense better than those not selected. 
It will mean the judges have attempted to provide what 
they consider an interesting program for entertainment of 
the guests. Following the selection of the films musical 
backgrounds also were to be chosen. 

In other years travelogues have been in the majority of 
the films submitted. Among other subjects shown have 
been melodramas, international sports events, semi-indus- 
trials, comedies, African hunting, archaeological discovery, 
current historical events of local interest (local to other 
places as well as to New York) and such unique things as 

Continued on page 126 




ClBfE-KODAK*E 

witL -^.3.3 3 c^jjcedj- 


KODASCOPE*EE 


F ixed-focus, the 16 mm. Model E is fitted with the 
famous Kodak Anastigmat /.3.5 lens which focuses 
sharply on all objects from a few feet distant to infinity. 
The “E” may be operated at any of three speeds — 
Normal, Intermediate, or Slow Motion — 16, 32, or 64 
frames per second. Exclusive with the Model E is its 
new-type enclosed eye-level finder. When you sight 
with it you see both image and footage by means of a 
supplementary footage indicator at the side of the 
finder image. And, because of the “E’s” angled top, 
you need not take off your hat when sighting. Single- 
plane loading, a simplified gate, and ample finger room 
greatly facilitate loading with 50- or 100-foot rolls of 
Cine-Kodak “Pan,” Super Sensitive “Pan,” Cine- 
Kodak Safety, daylight Kodachrome, or Type A Koda- 
chrome Film for Photoflood light. 

Added Advantages 

The “E’s” exposure lever may be pressed down into 
locking position so that the operator may get into the 
picture himself when the camera is set on a flat surface 
or affixed to Cine-Kodak Tripod. The Model E’s sturdy 
<lie-cast aluminum case promises years of scar-free use- 
fulness. Only $48.50 at Cine-Kodak dealers’. 


U ndoubtedly the most important feature of the 16 
mm. “EE” is projection “tailor-made” to individ- 
ual projection conditions. The five projection lenses 
and 400-, 500-, and 750-watt lamps available for the 
“EE” enable it to supply just the right amount of light 
for any screen up to 8 feet in width and at distances 
from 0 to 64 feet. 

Projection Table Unnecessary 

The base of the Model EE is designed for projection 
from carrying case top, thus eliminating the need for 
projection stand or table. Its 30° tilting device permits 
you to direct the projection throw up or down to a 
screen on floor or table. The Model EE is extremely 
cool and quiet in operation — cool, because of its power- 
ful fan and efficient cooling system; quiet, because its 
six major bearings are permanently lubricated. Its tan- 
dem pull-down assures steady projection; its rewind 
clutch eliminates belt changing. 

The price of the “EE” is but $59.50, including 2-inch 
f.2.5 lens and 400-watt lamp — a combination supply- 
ing ample illumination for average home shows. Here, 
obviously, is the outstanding projector value in the 16 
mm. field. See it at Cine-Kodak dealers’. 







118 American Cinematographer • March, 1937 


Background vs. Foreground Lighting 


A fter viewing a number of the splendid films en- 
tered in the 1936 contest conducted by the Amer- 
ican Society of Cinematographers, I have a comment 
to offer in regard to the lighting of interior scenes. 

It is prompted by the too-evident lack in most of these 
scenes of what we term balanced lighting. There was a 
woeful amount of flatness, or lack of depth to the pictures, 
and little separation of characters in foreground from the 
supporting background. 

The impression gained was that the cine-amateur sets 
up his lamps on either side of his camera, directs them at 
the field of the scene and, so long as there is a sufficient 
quantity of light to make exposure possible, rests content 
with such general or flood lighting. This is not productive 
OT the best results. 

The subject of interior lighting is a big one and can 
scarcely be set forth in this limited space. Every shot is 
different and the lighting technique demanded is corre- 
spondingly varied. But there are a few fundamental prin- 
ciples that can be applied to the majority of interiors pho- 
tographed by the amateur. 

Two Factors in Composition 

It is essential to realize that there are two separate and 
distinct parts to a pictorial composition as generally used 
for the screen; the background and the foreground. 

Each is important and each contributes its share to the 
ensemble's effectiveness. They have a definite relation- 
ship and, when properly employed, supplement each other. 
Lighting must be done with this well in mind. 

In most interiors filmed by amateurs, characters com- 
prise the foreground and a room of the home furnishes the 
very acceptable background. Hence, I shall speak of char- 
acter lighting as compared with background lighting. 

Audience interest lies in the actions of your characters. 
They must be readily seen. They must stand out against 
the background, not merge into it and become a part of 
it. This latter effect is exactly what occurs when one 
blanket of light is used to cover both characters and back- 
ground. 

In making close-ups and close shots of one, two or even 
three persons, the interest centers in their faces. The 
background is unimportant, as the locale has been previ- 
ously established in other and longer shots. 

Here, lighting should be concentrated wholly on the 
close-up faces. When suitable modeling has been obtained 
by proper disposition of lamps, the spill-over of light to the 
background is generally sufficient to handle it. The back- 
ground should purposely be vague, neutral and a support- 
ing but not confusing background to the facial portraits. 

When Handling Differs 

But on longer shots, as where characters are seen in a 
room, with its furnishings and walls as background, thought 
must be given to lighting of the two factors. 

The characters, as indicated by the clothing, complexion 
and hair, will be darker, or lighter in tone than the walls 
forming the background, or possibly very much the same 
color. Each condition asks for a different handling. 

If the characters are of a darker tone, the background 
should be lighted with reasonable brilliance while a soft 
and diffused light plays on the characters. This will ac- 
centuate the tonal differentiation and cause the characters 
to stand out boldly against the background. 

When characters are of tone lighter than their surround- 


by 

John Arnold, A.S.C. 


ings, lighting is reversed. Throw just enough light over the 
background to make it amply visible, but concentrate 
light on the players. Side lighting and back lighting will 
enhance the characters, with possibly a strong back light 
to "rim" their figures or faces. Again, the result is to have 
the individuals revealed in sharp relief against the back- 
ground. 

When tonal values of characters and background ore 
much the same, light must be laid heavier on the char- 
acters. From a third to a half more light should be in 
the foreground than in the background. Here, again, "rim" 
lighting from the back will be of aid in showing a clear 
line of demarcation between character and setting. 

These applications of light will give depth to the com- 
position, life and luster to the picture, and make the char- 
acters real people cleanly etched against an enhancing 
background. 

Balance in Lighting 

Throughout, and by far the most difficult for the ama- 
teur to achieve, is the important factor of securing balance 
in the lighting effect on both the foreground and back- 
ground. Neither should be "burned up" while the other 
suffers from inadequate light. Highlights on a character's 
face may often be balanced with deep shadows in the back- 
ground. 

In this work, the cine-amateur will find a few additions 
to the usual set of lamps to be emphatically useful. Maz- 
da and photoflood bulbs of different sizes will solve many a 
problem. Reflectors need not be oil of one shape or size. 
By having a variety available, light can better be placed 
as desired. An assortment of inexpensive tin or alumi- 
num basins, as available at ten-cent stores, makes very oC 
ceptable reflectors. 

For close-ups and for all head portraits, a baby spotlight 
is invaluable. 

Diffusion of light, which breaks the beams into soft 
illumination, may easily be secured by simply hanging fab- 
ric of the required thinness or even tracing-cloth before 
the lamps. 

Silver or gold reflectors, too, can be used on interiors 
as well as on exteriors. 

Just as you do not always shoot exteriors with the sun 
directly at your back, so your interiors need not be lighted 
from immediately behind the camera and at camera level. 
It is well to have your main source of light well to one side 
or the other. For the best results, the lamps should al- 
ways be higher than the camera. 

And a word of caution. Doors, painted walls, polished 
furniture and other flat areas may serve as mirror-like re- 
flectors of your light. Watch for glowing "hot-spots" on 
them that betray the location of your lamps. 

If you will always look upon your characters and your 
background as two distinct lighting problems, and always 
light one with consideration for the other, you will avoid 
one of the commonest of amateur filming errors. 


March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 119 



m e rd 


Should Be 


n stru m e nt 



T wo VERY interesting films were shown at our re- 
cent cine-omoteur contest. Both were much the 
some os to general content; mostly factual, some- 
what fictional, they concerned activities of children in the 
two households with just enough thread of story and con- 
tinuity to maintain o reasonable degree of audience inter- 
est. In short, typical family films such os ore being filmed 
every day in countless homes. 

But — what 0 difference in those two pictures! They ore 
os different in treatment os the personalities of the two 
men who mode them. Which again emphasizes the amaz- 
ing flexibility and versatility of the modern cine-camera. 
It responds to every whim and desire of its operator. And 
that tosses the whole matter of photographic qualities right 
into the lop of the cinematographer. He gets in his fin- 
ished pictures exactly what he puts into them. 

The first film was shot by o doctor. He mode the pic- 
ture just os he does everything else; from on impersonal, 
coldly scientific knowledge token from demonstrated ex- 
periences of the post. His focus and exposure ore right 
on the nose; that was to be expected. 

What were intended to be photographic portraits of his 
children appear on the screen os so many clinical studies. 
Every freckle is revealed in unblushing prominence. Every 
physiological detail of the cute little faces is frankly ex- 
posed. Brilliant light penetrates every wrinkle and dimple. 
There ore no shadows to speak of. The whole film is os 
imaginative os a hospital case-record. 

The second picture was mode by a born salesman, bub- 
bling with enthusiasm and imagination. Frankly, he's not 
os proficient a cameraman as is our infant-usher. Many 
of his scenes are open to the same criticism that befalls 
most. Focus could be better, exposure is a little off. But 
what a wallop his pictures have! Women fairly coo over 
them. 

Every one of his shots is packed with human interest 
and framed in pleasing composition. His youngsters look 
like angels from a picture gallery. Shadows fall across 
the faces, imparting a wistful charm. He chortles happily 
that his camera "cheats." 

It does — and it should. For the greatest and most uni- 
versal appeal of motion pictures lies in the illusion they 
create. When devoted to entertainment they are an 
agency of enhancement, of glamour, of glorification. 

Our world would be drab indeed if our mental capacity 
encompassed only bare truths and shut out hope, imagina- 
tion and the capacity to attribute to others rare and 
priceless qualities which may be visible only to our inven- 
tive eyes. 

So with motion pictures. The very industry is built on 
fanciful romance and deliberate creation of illusion. Greta 
Gustafson, in her own personal appearance, man- 
nerisms and words, might or might not be of screen in- 
terest. But as the exotic Greta Garbo, in studied hair- 
dress, make-up and costume, in rehearsed action and 
speech, she is a fascinating creature millions pay money to 
see in images secured by shrewd camera application. 

Most famed stars, whose galloping images send pulses 
racing, are, in bathing suit or hospital cot, nothing to send 
picture postcards home obout. It is camera treatment 
that transforms them to heart-quickeners. 

A set may be aniy a three-sided room of wallboard, but 
it is a mansion when you see it screened. 


u s i o n 


by 

Frank B. Good, A.S.C. 


It all rests with the camera — and the man behind it. 
Motion picture moking consists not so much of taking 
precise photographs of subjects as it does of creating a 
pleasing picture from given raw material. 

This aggrandizement of character or vista may be 
achieved without destruction of identity. It is simply, to 
use the most popular Hollywood term, the injection of 
"glamour" to the treatment of your subject. 

Light is what turns the trick — light, and the way you use 
it. Hard, harsh white light is severe, penetrating, flat- 
tening, all-revealing. Soft, diffused light is kindly, flat- 
tering, bewitching. 

Photographic light can be and usually is diffused at two 
points; at the lamp source and also before the lens. 

Step on a studio set and you will see scarcely a naked 
light unit. Diffusing devices of one type or another, to 
provide definite effects, are everywhere. Some, for further 
complimentary effects on certain types, are slightly colored. 

And a diffusing filter is as standard camera equipment 
as the lens. It can be safely said that nearly every studio 
shot is made with the aid of such a filter. 

The amateur can profit from these studio standard 
practices that contribute to screen illusion and personality 
glorification. Lighting units are not expensive to buy and 
cheap to make. Have more than sufficient to provide 
minimum illumination. Have several shapes and sizes of 
lights and try out various sizes of lamps. 

For diffusion, make a simple frame of wire or wood. 
In it place material of semi-transparent nature that light 
will shine through — tissue paper, thin oiled paper, cello- 
phane, silk, bobinette, cheesecloth, gauze, veiling, scrim. 
Don't be afraid to use a little color — violet, pink and blue. 

Light so diffused will appear to soften faces, round out 
sharp features, give warmth and modish modeling. Set 
one main key light to establish your lighting source and 
with the other units play for effects. Give heed to the 
general impressian, then give particular attentian to eyes 
and mouth — the most expressive features. And the pos- 
sibility of highlights in the hair. Illuminate the back- 
ground sufficiently to establish its character and obtain 
depth to your picture. It mustn't fade away vaguely into 
semblance of a painted backdrop; it is to supplement and 
build up your foreground. 

When outdoors under sunlight, use larger frames filled 
with netting and mounted on poles, to break up the beams. 
Silver and gold reflectors cost little to assemble. Use 
them to control shadows and accentuate highlights. 

A diffusing filter for your camera is one of neutral color 
value. Your dealer doubtless can furnish severa types. If 
not, the maker of your camera will tell you where you can 
secure them. Price is small. 


Continued on page 1 28 


120 American Cinematographer • March, 1937 



T HE EXPORTATION from the United 

States of 16mm projectors for 1936 
reached o figure of 7388, on increase 
over the year preceding of more than 
5000 machines. The figures ore authen- 
tic, being supplied by the Department 
of Commerce, through the enterprising 
chief of its motion picture division, 
Nathan D. Golden. 

The value of the exportation was 
$304,278, which compared with $124,- 
933 for 1981 projectors sent out of the 
country in the preceding year. This 
means the overage return to the manu- 
facturers was $33 each. 

Also it means the enthusiasm for 
ownership of a motion picture camera 
is not confined to the United States — 
that it spreads to the for corners of the 
world. There will be much in Mr. 
Golden's information that will hearten 
American manufacturers of 16mm and 
8mm equipment to keep abreast of their 
possibilities in the foreign markets. 

Sound motion picture equipment ex- 
ports during 1936 have increased over 
$600,000. During this period $2,105,- 
288 worth of American motion picture 
reproducing and record ng equipment was 
exported to all foreign markets as against 
$1,482,281 worth during 1935. 

Leica Exhibit Closing 

• The third international Leica exhibit 
will come to a close in Boston March 12. 
The sessions will be held in the Haw- 
thorne Room of the Parker House begin- 
ning March 8. The hours will be from 1 1 
in the morning until 9 at night. The 
illustrated Leica lecture is set for 8 
o'clock in the evening of March 10 in 
the Boston City Club. In Providence, 
from March 1 to 6, the exhibit will be 
held in Faunce House, Brown University. 

Show Some Native Films 

Assistant Trade Commissioner Miles 
Hammond, at Mexico, reports motion 
picture exhibitors in Mexico are required 
to show at least one nationally pro- 
duced film a month in their houses under 
the provisions of a law project approved 
by the Chamber of Deputies. Never- 
theless, in practice it has been found 
the application of the law is not onerous, 
as requirement is not mode that the na- 


WHEELS 


OF 

tional picture be shown to the exclusion 
of foreign films on the same program. 

Under Article 2 of this law exhibitors 
are entitled to a reduction to 8 per cent 
from the 15 per cent collectible as tax 
on their daily receipts. This is under 
Article 99 of the finance law of the 
federal district and federal territories on 
days when they show films produced 
in Mexico. 

Those exhibitors who do not adhere 
to the one Mexican film a month quota 
requirement are liable to a fine of from 
50 to 1 000 pesos for a first offense and 
to cancellotion of license for a repeated 
offense. 

Desert Service by Morgan 

• The new Palm Springs branch of the 
Morgan Camera Shop, which was opened 
for business last November at the be- 
ginning of the resort season, is conduct- 
ing a fast finishing service between the 
Springs and the company's establish- 
ment in Hollywood. The store is carry- 
ing a good line of Leica, Eastman, Bell 
and Howell and Zeiss cameras. Mrs. 
Nina Morgan is aiding her husband in 
the conduct of the store. 

New Mogull Catalogue 

• Mogull Brothers of 1944 Boston 
road. New York, has issued a 72-page 
catalogue of 16mm silent films. The 
seventh edition of the booklet lists 
dromos, comedies, cartoons, sports, 
travel, religion, educational and miscel- 
laneous subjects. To those interested 
in 16mm films the company will send 
the catalogue on request. 

Leica Expands 

• Morch 1 M. Leitz, Inc., goes into its 
new home in the Heckscher Building, at 
730 Fifth avenue. New York. The ex- 
panding clientele of the company had 
made necessary the move to larger 
quarters in order adequately to accommo- 
date Leica owners. All members of the 
American Cinematographer family are 
invited to visit the new Leica home, 
where they will find available enlarged 
facilities fgr the demonstration of the 
camera, its accessories ond opparatus. 

Triax Cine Tripod 

e The Triox Cine Tripod is announced 
by Burleigh Brooks. The device is of 
four sections, mode of aluminum and 
is provided with a pan-tilting top. A 
scale, subdivided to every 15 degrees, is 


INDUSTRY 

etched on the round panoraming top for 
convenience in synchronizing the edges 
of the separote parts of a picture. 

The tripod is essentially rigid and 
secure — a tilting lever when pressed 
down locks the panoraming feature, and 
the extending handle grip when it is 
tightened locks the tilting feature. 

"Wellcome" Diary for 1937 

• The new edition of the "Wellcome" 
Photographic Exposure Calculator, Hand- 
book and Diary for 1937, is announced. 
One of its features is that it gives in- 
formation as to the speeds and develop- 
ment characteristics of nearly 300 dif- 
ferent plates and films and comparative 
exposure foctors for development papers 
and lantern slides. 

The monographs contain information 
of interest ond utility on such subjects 
as developing, printing, enlarging, ton- 
ing, color and infra-red photography. 

A Lot of Lenses 

• When one firm in the course of a 
quarter century grinds out (and please 
note that is not slang, brother) a mil- 
lion lenses that's real news in any pub- 
lication. That is the record marked up 
by Joseph Schneider & Co. 

When the company began business in 
Kreuznach it was agreed no inferior 
product would be permitted to leave its 
factory and that one of its chief aims 
would be to send out precision lenses to 
be sold at a reasonable price. 

So the company tells us the millionth 
lens has left the factory. A bit of figur- 
ing will show a significant result — that 
the company has produced an average 
of 40,000 lenses each and every year. 
And that is a lot of lenses. 

Big Merger in India 

• Announcement is made by Fazalbhoy 
Limited, with administration offices at 
160, Tardeo Road, Bombay 7, that 
under that corporation name will be 
conducted in future the business for- 
merly carried on by A. Fazaibhoy & 
Sons, Bombay Radio Company Ltd., and 
Sound Equipment Company Ltd. 

Film Dryer by Brooks 

• Burleigh Brooks announces the Bee 
Bee Viscose Film Dryer, a film and plate 
drying device of American construction. 

Continued on page 124 


March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 121 


Kodaslide Projector 
Reproduces ^Stills^^ 
With Great Brilliance 


N ews comes from Rochester announcing the Koda- 
slide Projector, a product of the Eastman Kodak. 
Company. This instrument provides owners of 
Kodak Retina, Kodak Bantam Special and other miniature 
cameras with an ideal means of projecting their "still" 
pictures. Manufactured to precision standards, this bril- 
liant projector throws screen images with unusual clarity 
over a large picture area, as shown in the accompanying 
table. 

Either full-calor Kodachrome transparencies, or black- 
and-white film pasitives from No. 135 to No. 828 nega- 
tives may be shown. For projection, each individual picture, 
properly masked, is mounted in a 2 by 2 inch glass slide, 
suitably bound. 

The projector is strong, solid and extremely easy to use. 
It has an attractive baked block-enamel wrinkle finish 
and dull-nickel operating parts. 

This "douser" method of shifting from picture to pic- 
ture is one of the projector's chief features. The 2 by 
2 inch glass slides are inserted in the metal gate ot the 
top of the slide holder and are gravity-fed by means of 
the slide-shifting lever at the side of the projection head. 

After the first picture has been viewed the lever is 
raised. The image on the screen is cut off by a shutter. 
Then, when the lever reaches its limit, the slide just pro- 
jected drops by gravity ta the holder below the projection 
head. In this position the dropped slide acts as a stop 
to locate the next slide in the projection gate. As the 
lever is lowered to its original position the new slide is 
clamped into position by spring fingers and the shutter 
opens, revealing the entire picture properly positioned and 
securely held in focus. The slide previously projected may 
then be removed edgewise from the holder. 

Lamp and Lamp House 

Illumination is provided by a 200-watt 1 15-volt lamp 
with concentrated coil-coil filaments. Due to the high heat 
output of the lamp, the square lamp house has been care- 
fully calculated as to size and design to remain safely cool 
on its outer surface. This is qccomplished by means of on 
inner shell which permits on air space on all four sides. 

In addition, natural draft ventilation exhausts the heat 
from the top of the lamp house. The lamp house cover 
is baffled and may be turned so that both the heat and 
stray light are directed away from the operator and audi- 
ence. 

A spherical aluminum-coated glass reflector is located 
behind the lamp. The three-piece condenser lens unit, 
ample in size to give uniform screen illumination, has in 
addition a disc of heat-absorbing glass to prevent over- 
heating of the slides. 

The Kodaslide comes eauipped with a 4 7 /8 inch pro- 
jection lens of high quality. Its focal length assures 



■■ 


i ■ --- --^1 ■ ' ;■ ■ ■ 

The Kodaslide Projector shows large, clear screen 
pictures from Kodachrome transparencies or 
black-and-white film positives, mounted in 2 by 

2 inch glass slides. 

plenty of room in front of the projector for spectators. 
The lens gives remarkable definition and has a flat field; 
hence, the projected pictures show an even all-over sharp- 
ness right to the corners. Furthermore, the lens is free 
from distortion and chromatic aberration and is well cor- 
rected for astigmatism. 

The following table gives several examples of the size 
of the projected picture for both Kodok Retina and Kodak 
Bantam Special pictures, mounted in the 2 by 2 inch 
slides and shown with the projector at different distances. 



Distance 

of Projector From 

Screen 

Kodak 

Retina 

Kadak 

Bantam 

Picture Size 

Slides 

Special 

Slides 

On Screen 

10 

feet 

CO 

feet 

21 X 30 inches 

13 

// 

1 1 

U 

28 X 40 " 

16’/2 

// 

14'/2 

u 

36 x 52 " 

19 

H 

17 

II 

41 X 60 " 

23 

// 

20 

II 

50 X 72 " 


Because owners of the new projector will want to show 
both vertical and horizontal pictures, a square screen is 
recommended. Two knurled thumb screws at the front of 
the projector base provide a convenient means of ad- 
justing the height of the light beam to the position of the 
screen. 

Change of focus is accomplished smoothly by rotating 
the spirally grooved lens barrel. The lens may be re- 
moved easily for cleaning. 

Because of its sturdy construction, the Kodaslide is not 
easily jarred out of focus — never by the operation of the 
slide-shifting lever. The projector is 6 V 2 by 9V2 inches 
at the base and stands IOV 2 inches high. Its weight is 
5 pounds. An 8 -foot length of rubber-covered cord with 
plug and convenient tumbler-type switch is provided. 

The price of the projector is $48.50. A carrying case 
is available at $ 8 . It will hold the projector, lens, and 
two slide boxes holding about 50 slides each. 



122 American Cinematographer • March, 1937 


Cinematographers 

T erse, descriptive words that roll off the tongue 

ore so much easier and faster to use than precise 
technical expressions. That, I presume, .s one reason 
for the development of the studios' strange language. 
Picture production has to keep moving once it gets under 
way. There is no time for deliberate diction or academic 
speechmaking. 

So long as all hands understand the expressions it is 
comparatively simple to say "Slip another skirt on that 
broad," instead of lecturing; "Will an electrician kindly 
place another screen made of silk in front of that broad- 
side lighting unit so as to afford a degree more of diffus- 
sion." It may sound a bit frivolous, possibly, but if we 
failed to relax between shots we all soon would be in sani- 
tariums suffering from nervous breakdown. 

Here are more specimens of the cinematographer's shop 
talk : 

MAGAZINE. A removable compartment where exposed 
and unexposed film is wound, attachable to camera. 

MARK IT. Simultaneously to register on picture nega- 
tive an action and on sound track the sound resulting 
therefrom so that both films may be exactly synchronized 
in the cutting room. In some studios this is accomplished 
with a wooden clapper; in others by a device that auto- 
matically fogs the two films. 

MATCH BOX. A baby stop light. 

MEDIUM SHOT. A scene made from reasonably close 
range, a view of an actor from the knees up. 

MINIATURE. A small replica of an item too expensive 
or impractical to build in life size. Photographing it at 
short distances makes it fill the screen and so seem normal 
when viewed. 

MIXER. The chief sound man on a set. 

MOOD. The dramatic value or weight of a scene. It 
governs the lighting key. 

NET. A thin netting, as cheesecloth, hung before a 
lamp to gain diffusion. 

"Pan" Goes Two Ways 

NIGGER. A gobo, a black. 

OILS. Gelatine screen used to obtain diffusion; so 
named from colored oiled paper used for the purpose in 
the early days. 

PAN. (1) Panchromatic. (2) To "panoram" with 
camera. 

PANCAKE. A low, squatty stool to stand on when 
sighting a high camera set-up. 

PARALLEL. A four-legged platform, built like a card 
table. 

PRINT. A printed copy of a negative made on positive 
film. 

PRINT IT. An acceptable photographed scene, an 
OK'd take. Of several efforts, this is the one for the 
laboratory to print for the picture. 

PROJECTION BACKGROUND. A transparency back- 
ground, a moving background to a set projected from the 
rear from film specially made for the purpose. 

PROCESS SHOT. A general term designating a scene 
composed of any expedient other than normal sets and 
actors. 

PROPS. Properties, the thousand and one articles used 
in dressing or furnishing a set. 

POSITIVE. A print from a negative, the reverse image 
from negative. 

PULL IT DOWN. To limit the area covered by the 
flood light, to concentrate or "spot" it more. 


Have Language 
All Their Own 

by 

Joseph August, A.S.C. 

ARTICLE II 

RAFTERS. The temporary scaffolding erected around 
a set. 

RELEASE PRINT. The print made from a completed 
negative which is released to theatres for exhibition. 

RETAKE. To do and shoot a scene over again. 

RIBBON. Negative film. 

ROLL 'EM. To start the motors driving camera and 
sound recorder. 

ROUGHING IN. The first lighting of a set preparatory 
to lighting of actors. 

RUSHES. Dailies, prints of yesterday's negative, pre- 
sumably rushed through the laboratory for critical inspec- 
tion. 

"Save 'Em" for Economy 

SAVE 'EM. Turn off the lights, kill 'em, when not 
needed. 

SCENE. One of the many unit episodes that combine 
to make a picture; a sentence or paragraph of the entire 
story. 

SCRIM. Thin fabric placed before a lamp for diffusion. 

SECOND. The operative Cameraman. 

SECOND BROOM. The assistant prop man. 

SENIOR. A large light unit containing a 5000-watt 
lamp; larger than a Junior. 

SET. The setting built on a stage or location wherein 
action takes place. 

SET-UP. (1) To place a camera in position for 
shooting. (2) The place where a camera is set up for n 
shot. 

SHARP. In focus. 

SHOT. A picture, a scene, a view that has been or 
is to be photographed. 

SILVER. A reflector covered with silver leaf, throwing 
a white light. 

SINK. Synchronize. Picture and sound must be "in 
sink." 

SKIRT. A screen of thin silk, possibly colored, placed 
before a lamp to give diffusion. 

SLATE. A small blackboard on which is chalked scene 
number, etc., for guidance of laboratory and cutting room. 

SOFT. A flat negative, the reverse of contrasty. 

SOUND. Dialogue, music, noises, anything going on 
the sound track. 

SOUP. The developer used in processing negative in 
laboratory. 

SPEED. Camera operating at speed of twenty-four 
frames of negative per second. 

STEREOPTICON BACKGROUND. A still background to 
a set projected from a picture behind the backwall of set. 
Used to give appearance of far distance to exterior sets 
built on stage. 


Continued on page 127 


March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 123 


& Lomb Laboratory 

for Applied Research 


New Bausch 

At a cost of approximately $40,000 
and a 50 per cent increase in its staff 
of graduate chemical engineers and 
metallurgist, Bausch & Lomb has opened 
a new laboratory for applied research. 

Theodore B. Drescher, vice-president, 
under whose direction the new labora- 
tory has been placed, outlined the com- 
pany's plans. He said: 

"Believing the optical industry in 
America will meet increasingly keen 
competition from abroad, where low 
labor costs exist, Bausch & Lomb will 
engage in a broad program of funda- 
mental investigations on the chemistry 
and physics of glass surfaces and in the 
development of new materials and proc- 
esses for the industry." 

Guided by Frank P. Kolb, chief chem- 
ist, and Theodore J. Zak, assistant 
chemist, company officials saw the con- 
version of nearly 9,000 square feet of 
space on the fifth floors of two buildings 
facing the Genesee River into a series of 
laboratory units devoted to research in 
the fields of metallurgy, experimental 
electro-plating, spectroscopy, photomi- 
crography and physical testing. A well- 
stocked library and a consulting room 
add to the facilities of the research staff. 

Physical Tests for Industry 

Real advance has been made, accord- 
ing to Mr. Drescher, in the perfection 
of cements for optical purposes; in the 
study of abrasives and polishing materi- 
als for optical glass, and in the investi- 
gation of the chemical and physical re- 
actions on glass surfaces, induced by in- 
dustrial gases, corrosive atmospheres and 
other atmospheric conditions. Further 
studies on these and many other sub- 
jects ore planned. 

One of the most interesting units is 
that in which Dr. James E. Wilson and 
his assistant, Vernon Patterson, are en- 
gaged in applying metallurgical equip- 
ment to the study of the structure of 
the steels and alloys used in industry. 
Physical tests are employed to check the 
quality and adaptability of materials. 

This laboratory is equipped with the 
new Bausch & Lomb metallogrophic in- 
strument for the study of the crystal 
structure and surface characteristics of 
metals. It also has one electric heat- 
treating furnace with controlled atmos- 
phere and a smaller one for treating 
high-speed steel at ranges up to 2500 
degrees F. 

This equipment is supplemented by 
Brinell and Rockwell hardness testers 
and implements for cutting and polish- 
ing metal specimens for microscopic ex- 
amination. This de.oartment will act as 
a control for the materials used in the 
many departments of the plant and will 


assist the sales department in supplying 
information sought by customers. 

Closely allied with this department is 
the laboratory for spectrographic analy- 
sis, a field in which the company is a 
world leader. In addition to testing 
spectrographic equipment built for lab- 
oratories in the United States, the ap- 
plication of spectroscopy to industrial 
problems, particularly in the field of met- 
allurgy and cameras, has been recognized 
as an indispensable requirement. With 
the facilities of the new laboratory, the 
company will assist industry in the solu- 
tion of problems in which spectroscopy is 
important. 

Cutting the Dust Counts 

One of the most interesting and valu- 
able developments of the chemical lab- 
oratory has been in connection with a 
new transparent resin for use in pro- 
tective glasses. The refinement of this 
commercial material for optical require- 
ments has been an outstanding achieve- 
ment. Sheets of this transparent sub- 
stance have shown o light transmission 
efficiency of 90 per cent. 

The product has been found to have 
qualities superior to any materials avail- 


JUST BREAKING IN 

Continued from page 89 

O "But what a man he is," Paul went 
on with real enthusiasm. "I found him 
in Singapore, where he runs the Capitol 
Theaters. He knows all the men who 
go out to the Orient in search of film 
adventure. He is a sidekick of Frank 
Buck. He meets all the incoming ships, 
just to keep track of his friends. If any 
one tells you he has been in Singapore 
and you are skeptical ask him to tell 
you about Joe Fisher. Your unasked 
question will be answered right off the 
bat. 

"Joe really is a world film figure. In 
a 16mm reel of film he has the greatest 
collection of stunt stuff ever put to- 
gether. He has collected from every one 
passing through Singapore who had any- 
thing of real value." 

The last time this writer saw Joe 
Fisher was a dozen years ago in Los 
Angeles. The first time was a quarter 
century ago in New York at an exhibitors' 
convention. At that time his theater 
ventures were in South Africa. Paul is 
right when he says Joe Fisher is a world 
film figure. 


able in the pasi as a laminating medium 
for lenses. Investigations of this ma- 
terial and other cementing substances 
are conducted in a new air-filtered room 
in which the dust count is under 300,000 
units a cubic foot, while the ordinary 
atmosphere has a count of from three 
and a half to four million. 

Test Analyses Continue 

The testing and control laboratory, 
under the direction of Ray A. Kirchmaier 
and Joseph T. Anderson, is equipped 
for general analytical work ond will 
continue to analyze and test the hun- 
dreds of materials purchased or made by 
Bausch & Lomb which enter into its own 
products and processes. 

Dr. D. M. Webb has been added to 
the staff for research in chemistry. One 
of his immediate problems will concern 
the electro-deposition of various metal- 
lic substances as a backing for reflect- 
ors. 

The manufacturing laboratory, under 
George G. King, is provided with facili- 
ties for making pitches, waxes, resins, 
polishing felts and a multitude of the 
600 other materials required in the 
B&L plant or for sale to outside in- 
dustries. 


Condemn Mutilating Devices 

Continuing its campaign against muti- 
lation of motion picture release prints, 
the Projection Practice Committee of the 
Society of Motion Picture Engineers at 
its recent meeting passed a resolution 
condemning certain devices for cueing 
prints now on the market. The resolu- 
tion reads: 

"The Projection Practice Committee 
of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 
does not approve of any structural modi- 
fication, injury or mutilation of the 
standard release print by the projection- 
ist, and views with disfavor the sale of 
devices capable of causing physical dam- 
age to film for cue marks or the like. 
The committee regards cue marking as 
a function exclusively of the laboratory 
Or exchange which is involved." 

This latest action of the committee 
was oassed after such a device was ex- 
hibited before the committee. This de- 
vice enables the projectionist to punch 
a number of holes in the film to indi- 
cate points of change-over and is of- 
fered for sale to projectionists. 


1.14 American Cinematographer • March, 1937 


Cornelius Bol Comes to Rescue 

of Stand-ins Worn Out by Heat 


By permission of the editors of Time, 
The Cinematographer is privileged to 
reproduce for its readers a story of amaz- 
ing results attained by Cornelius Bol, 
working at Stanford University. All 
who have to do with lighting will find 
here figures that undoubtedly will inter- 
est them. Especially may this be true 
in the case of those who long have sought 
light without undue heat. But read it 
for yourself. It is from Time of Febru- 
ary 8 : 

Floodlights commonly used in Cinema 
studios may heat up small sets, make 
actors too uncomfortable to do their best 
work. Beads of sweat on shapely noses 
and fine foreheads will ruin takes. Last 
week a bulky Dutch physicist named 
Cornelis Bol, working at Stanford Uni- 
versity, had film producers interested 
in a tiny, super-powerful lamp which will 
keep their stars cool while working. 

Bol's lamp is a stout, strongly sealed 
quartz tube less than a quarter-inch in 
outside diameter, with an inside diameter 
of .08 to .04. It contains neon to start 
an electric arc, is so full of mercury 
that when the arc vaporizes the mercury, 
the pressure rises as high as 300 atmos- 
pheres. At the core of the mercury the 
temperature is 14,000° F., on the in- 
side wall of the tube 1 ,800°. 

The lamp is served by a water coaler 
in which the water must be hurried alang 
in its jacket to prevent the formation 
of steam bubbles. 

Enough Light For Filming 

The heat given off is negligible, since 
the light of mercury vapor slides off the 
visible spectrum at the opposite side 
from the red end where heat waves pre- 
dominate. The lamp, however, sheds 
enough red light for filming. 

A five-inch lamp, no bigger than a 
clinical thermometer, gives a maximum 
of 80,000 candlepower. A lamp of this 
length requires 8,000 volts ( 1 ,600 volts 
for each inch) but the current is only 
1 .5 amperes. Physicist Bol believes his 
little tubes will be useful for lighting 
airports, cinema projection, treatment of 
skin diseases. 

Has Leased Rights 

He has leased manufacturing rights 
to General Electric Co. and Philips Glow 
Lamp Co. of Holland, declared last week 
that two motion picture companies had 
approached him with offers. Cost figures 
were concealed last week but a Bol inti- 
mate said they were "ridiculously low." 

Cornelis Bol talks wittily in his im- 
perfect English, likes sloppy, comfortable 
clothes, has a plump wife and five chub- 
by sons for whom he keeps a horse and 
a pony-cart. Born in Hollond 52 years 


ago, he came to the U.S. in 1907 to 
study at Princeton, Stanford, the Univer- 
sity of Montana, returned in 1916 to 
his native land where he worked on the 
development of sodium vapor lamps in 
the Philips laboratories and devised a way 
of sealing chrome steel to glass in X- 
ray apparatus. Last autumn he again 
bobbed up at Stanford as a research as- 
sistant. "Eurape," he said, "iss no blace 
to bring up fife children." Stanford is 
financing his present work, expects some 
share in the profits. 


Transitions Are What You 
Make Them 

Continued from page 114 

panion, the fade-in for setting a definite 
"full stop" to a line of thought. There 
is the lap-dissolve for the very smoothest 
transition between clearly related scenes 
and sequences. And there is the wide 
range of wipes for use when we can af- 


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“Thumbnail course on 

o 

Double-System 16mm. 
sound-on-film recording 


technique. 


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READING TIME FOUR MINUTES 




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ford to have the transition call attention 
to camera trickery. 

The question is, what are we going to 
say with all these filmic punctuation- 
marks? The really clever directar is the 
one who knows how to lead his scenes 
up to natural transitions. For example, 
suppose we want to bridge the gap be- 
tween baby's bath and his dinner. Why 
not end the bath sequence with a 
straight-down shot of the swirl of water 
running from the tub, and open the meal 
sequence with a similar angle of milk 
pouring into a cup? Then, from the table 
to bed can be bridged by a close-up of a 
napkin being falded, followed by a close- 
up of the bedclothes being pulled down. 

With or without the help of mechan- 
ical tricks such as fades, dissolves or 
wipes, these shots will blend the scenes 
together evenly. They are in themselves 
good transitions. And though they may 
look simple and natural on the screen 
they are evidence of fully as much cine- 
matographic skill as the trickiest of 
wipes. 

And here's a surprising secret — if you 
plan your scenes with these natural 
transitional shots in mind you will have 
less and less need ta worry about put- 
ting in intricate mechanical transitions! 


Wheels of Industry 

Continued from page 120 

It utilizes the well-known properties of 
Viscose sponges. This material is absorb- 
ent, durable, practically imperishable, 
of a velvety softness when wet and rap- 
idly drying. It is lintless and cohesive — 
and will wipe off moisture from films 
and plates — evenly, thoroughly and in- 
stantaneously. 

Second Rolleiflex Salon 

• The second Rolleiflex Salon and Ex- 
hibition will soon be on its way. 

The first Salon was instituted approxi- 
mately two years ago. A selected group 
of the prints from that show has been 
"on the road" ever since. 

The prints submitted will be grouped 
in four primary classifications: Pictorial, 
portrait, technical and news pictures. 
First prizes of $50 will be awarded to 
the makers of the best print in each 
group. Twenty-five dollars will be 
awarded the prints selected as second 
best. Provision is also being made for 
the awarding of twenty-five honorable 
mention certificates. An additional 
prize of $100 will be given to the 
maker of the best picture, to be chosen 
from the first four prize winners, thus 
making it possible for some lucky indi- 
vidual to win a grand total of $150. 

Communications regarding this con- 
test should be addressed to Burleign 
Brooks, Inc., 127 West Forty-second 
Street, New York. 




A JUNIOR 
SOCIETY 


APHERS has organ- 
imateur to be known 

aslhe SOCIETY OF AMATEUR CINEMATOGRAPHERS. 

FOR MANY YEARS amateurs have been requesting the American 
Society of Cinematographers to form an organization for them that would 
be representative, authoritative and instructive. 

IT WOULD BE EASY to form such an organization in the spirit of ac- 
companying enthusiasm, but to insure the continuance of such an associa- 
tion real ideals and a constructive policy are required. 

THE APPLICANT must own a camera, he must have made motion pic- 
tures, and he must submit a picture to the reviewing board which is made up 
of members of the American Society of Cinematographers. This does not 
mean that the 'amateur is going to be judged by 100*^0 professional stand- 
ards, as practically every member on the reviewing board operates either an 
8 mm or 16 mm camera and is familiar with the shortcomings of the amar- 
teur’s equipment. 

MEMBERSHIP will include a subscription to the American Cinema- 
tographer. It also will include the use of the outstanding films made by 
members of the Society of Amateur Cinematographers. As films are 
submitted, the best will be duplicated and an analysis prepared by a mem- 
ber of the American Society of Cinematographers. This analysis will go 
with the picture and the picture will be available to any member of the 
Society of Amateur Cinematographers. 

WRITE FOR APPLICATION BLANK AND FULL PARTICULARS. 




American Society of Cinematographers 


1782 N. Orange Drive 


Hollywood, California 



126 American Cinematographer • March, 1037 


Amateur Movie Club News 


Continued from page 116 


the actual start of Amelia Earhart's 
famous solo flight across the Atlantic, 
which no newsreel secured, and the first 
sailing of the United States Liner Man- 
hattan, which was filmed from the pier- 
head in New York, in a downpour of 
rain at midnight. 

These parties have been copied in 
other parts of the country, and are fast 
becoming one of the notable outgrowtns 
of the amateur motion picture hobbv. 

Los Angeles 8mm Club Will 
Mention Society in Titles 

A leader strip announcing that the 
film's maker is a member of such and 
such an amateur cine club is something 
all club members very properly like tc 
include in their productions. From the 
club's viewpoint, however, it is not al- 
ways easy to provide such leader strips. 
Where some members shoot 1 6mm and 
others 8mm, some black-and-white and 
others color, there is a good deal of 
physical complication. 

There is also the unpleasant matter 
of cost, for few if any club treasuries 
could stand the drain of providing com- 
plete leader film for the members gratis 
— and, believe it or not, no club treas- 
urer enjoys making members pay for such 
adjuncts of membership. 

The Los Angeles 8mm Club has solved 
this problem very neatly. At the club's 
February meeting, held at the Bell & 
Howell Building in Hollywood, Secretary 
M. R. Armstrong distributed title-cords 
which enabled the members to moke 
rheir own club leader strips. As shown 
in the accompanying illustration, these 
cords carry the club emblem and the 
words, "Member Los Angeles 8mm 
Club." 

The cords ore mode in two sizes, to fit 
the overage home titler, and in two 
types; one on white paper, with the 
word "member" in red and the rest of 
the lettering in block, for use in block- 



Title Cord of 8mm Club 


ond-white films; the other, with the 
some printing but on pole blue paper, 
for use in Kodochrome pictures. Thus 
with two cords, the club member con 
produce o variety of effects in either 
black-and-white or color. 

Using the white cord, he con by using 
o blue filter darken the red-printed 
word, "member," and thus moke it more 
prominent. 

Using on orange or red filter he con 


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Effectively 
Easily 


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problems ingeniously and permanently 
— and that requires no especial train- 
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wield a rubber stamp . . . STAMP-0- 
TfTLE may be used with either 16mm. 
or 8mm. film in black and-white or 
Kodachrome. The convenience of this 
method is based on the efficacy of an 
especially patented solution which out- 
lines the lettering and forms an ab- 
sorptive base for the Cold or Silver 
Powder . . . STAM P-O-TITLE is pro- 
vided with 3 titling surfaces of dur- 
able composition, black for black-and- 
white, red for Kodachrome and trans- 
parent for use with any backgrounds. 
The application of an eradicator fluid 
furnished with set removes lettering 
from Titling Surface immediately — 
leaving it blank and clean for fufure 
use. 

STAMP-O-TITLE consisfs of 1 boftle 
Patented Fluid, 1 Bottle Eradicator, 1 
Vial each Cold and Silver Powder, Font 
Cine Rubber type, Type-Holder, with 
handle. Tweezers, Inking Pad, 3 Com- 
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If your dealer cannot supply you, send 
check or money order to: 

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SPLICER and REWINDS 


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junior Splicer with two geared rewinds 
all mounted on 21" board. 
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lighten it. Photographing the some cord 
in Kodachrome he con get o wide range 
of effects with projected colored light. 
Using the blue cord and filters for 
black-and-white he con get o soft, 
neutral gray title, or progressively darken 
the background os he wishes. 

Celebration in Philadelphia 

• The Philadelphia Cinema Club held 
its anniversary banquet February 1 8 in 
the Rose Room-McCollister, 1811 Spring 
Garden street. A. L. O. Rosch, secre- 
tory-treasurer, reports the occasion was 
successful, one of the factors contribut- 
ing to that result being the door prizes 
given by the following dealers: 

Eastman Kodak Stores, two 8x10 sil- 
ver finish picture frames; Klein & Good- 
man, 1 00 ft. Eastman Panchromatic 
film and 50-ft. magazine Kodachrome 
film; H. & R. Camera Exchange, Craig 
Jr. splicer for 8mm or 16mm; M. & H. 
Sporting Goods Co., Testrite pan head 
and double reflector on tripod and lights. 

P. Rosenfeld, Craig Jr. splicer for 
8mm or 16mm; Seaboard Camera Stores 
Inc., Keystone titler 16mm or Kodak 
8mm rewind and splicer; Street, Linder 
& Propert, 1 00-ft. Type "A" Koda- 
chrome film; Wanger's Camera Shop, 
1 00-ft. Agfa Finopan film; Williams, 
Brown & Earle, Inc., Two Da-Lite Uni- 
pod canes. 


Portland Cine Club Meets 

• The February meeting of the Port- 
land Cine Club was held on the 26th in 
the lounge room of the Portland Cham- 
ber of Commerce. Shown to the mem- 
bers were sound pictures on 16mm and 
also 8mm and 16mm films taken 
by members. Announcement had been 
made it was to be the night of the big 
drawing. That was for the prizes that 
had been given by Beattie & Hoffman 
Inc., Eastman Kodak Stores, Joe Freck, 
J. K. Gill Company, Walter Leve, Meier 
Frank Compony, Lloyd F. Ryan of 
Bell and Howell, Sandy's Camera Shop, 
Sherman, Clay & Co., C. A. Wagner 
Company, James Walsh and Weisfield 
and Goldberg. 

Bay Cinema Club Meets 

A questionaire conducted by the Cin- 
ema Club of San Francisco showed the 
members are interested in taking indoor 
pictures. At the meeting held February 
23 Member Gordon Michie and O. J. 
Smith of the Eastman Kodak Company 
gave a talk on the subject of indoor pic- 
tures. Also they gave a demonstration 
of proper lighting for such photography. 

H. T. Kelly, a guest, screened an 8mm 
film for constructive criticism. 



March, 1937 • American Cinematographer 127 


Studio Cinematographers Have 
Language All Their Own 

Continued from page 122 

STILL. Motionless, a picture mode 
by a portrait camera. 

STOCK. Negative film. 

STOCK SHOTS. Scenes already on 
hand, newsreel clips, travelogues, etc., 
that can be utilized in a picture. 

SUN ARC. A large 1 50-ampere arc 
lighting unit. 

“Test" Tells the Story 

TAKE. A photographed scene. 

TAPE. Measuring tape to determine 
focus by measuring distance between 
lens and object. 

TEST. To discover by actual experi- 
ment the effect of light, make-up, 
wardrobe and such on film. To deter- 
mine photographic qualities of a new 
actor or of an old one in a new char- 
acter. To see what sets or locations 
really look like on the screen. 

TEST BOX. A small portable devel- 
oping set frequently used on distant 
locations. 

THIN. Unde.'exposed. 

TILT. To move camera up or down. 

TINS. Reflectors covered with pol- 
ished tin, throwing a hard, hot light. 

TOSS 'EM IN. Turn on the lights; 
hit 'em. 

TRANSPARENCY. A background to 
a set projected from the rear on a trans- 
parent screen. 

TRICK SHOT. Any process photo- 
graphic result not as the camera normal- 
ly sees it. 

TURN 'EM. Roll 'em, start the 
motors driving camera and sound re- 
corder. 

TWO SHOT. A medium shot. 

WAIST FIGURE. A view of an actor 
from the waist up. 

WANGLER. A boom man, he manip- 
ulates or wangles the boom from which 
the microphone is suspended. 

WHITE LIGHT. Light from an arc 
lamp. 

WILD CAMERA. A camera not syn- 
chronized to a recorder, a camera not 
used with sound, a camera with speeds 
other than the normal twenty-four 
frames per second. 

WIRY. Too much contrast. 

WRAP IT UP. Let's go home, the 
day's work is done. 

ZOOM SHOT. With the camera 
stationary, a lens device moves forward 
or backward giving the image Qn ap- 
pearance of leaving or nearing the spec- 
tator, with proportionate variation in 
size. 





OERZ 


PRECISION 


In every step of lens manufacture, 
Coerz Precision is evident. In the 
careful selection of the raw material, 
in the meticulous grinding and polish- 
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detail, in the final, rigorous testing — 
this precision holds — and affords to 
users of Goerz Lenses an unequivocal 
and unconditional guarantee of their 
quality and performance. 

Kino-Hypar f /2.7 and f /3 ; 

Focal Lengths 15 to 100mm. 

Cinegor High Speed Lenses — 

Ideal for Color Work. f /2 
and f/2.5; Focal Lengths 40 
to 100mm. 

Telestar — A lens of the tele- 
photo type, f/4.5. Focal 
Lengths 6 1/4 to 15 1/2 
inches. 

Catalog B 3 on Request 

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GLARELESS 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

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MARKS POLARIZATION FILTERS 
Elimination of glare and reflection in 
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Booklet 53 on reqquest 

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HUGO 

'M’P.w.'a 


Titles & Editing 
Developing & Printing 
8 and 16mm. Short Subjects 

All Grades of Camera Films 

GENERAL CINE SERVICE 
204A East 18th Street New York 


The King of Allah’s Garden 

Continued from page 1 1 1 

became an idea, so that we wrote it into 
the story as “on abandoned jungle out- 
post." 

To get the most interesting angles we 
became contortionists, trying to dodge 
an "American wire fence" and a recent- 
ly surfaced macadam road which crossed 
our line of view within twenty feet of 
the walls! 

The "fort" structure is actually a 
marvelous granite gateway to a beauti- 
ful estate. The front which we used is 
comprised of two twenty-foot turrets on 
either side of an immense iron door. A 
sentry-box, grilled open-windowed "cell" 
and a twelve-foot wall partly hidden by 
thick growth of tall trees extend from 
both sides of the entrance. Each figured 
in our scenes. 

The property used as our location is 
entirely English in style. Depression 
years have wrought great changes to its 
appearance, with vines and brush climb- 
ing over the high walls and hiding the 
paths. This run-down condition, of 
course, aided in giving us the touch of 
realism our story needed. 

Our exterior photography was com- 
pleted in eight months' spare time, 
while another month was devoted to in- 
teriors, titling, cutting and editing. 
Originally it ran into 2,000 feet, but 
after elimination of the "not so good" 
it now stands at 1200. 

"The King of Allah's Garden" has re- 
ceived considerable press comment in 
our state whenever presented. We offer 
it with planned programs of other sub- 
jects. 

The work still stands as our pride, as 
a first experiment, from which we have 
gleaned many valuable aids ta present 
and future work. Our group of movie 
makers can enumerate many flaws, in 
photography, acting, and editing, but 
further remodeling is out. As the 1 6mm 
equipment and its followers advance 
through the years we believe it will be 
a pleasant "memory" to revive. 


Enlarged J^^^Reduced 
Geo. W. Colburn Laboratory 

Special Motion Picture Printing 

1197 MERCHANDISE MART 
CHICAGO 


OALY 

for one year’s subscription to American 
Cinematographer, any where in the 
United States. 

$3.50 foreign 

AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 
1782 No. Orange Drive 
Hollywood, California 


I 




1 28 American Cinematographer • March, 1037 


River Roll Along 

Continued from page 93 


CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 


point of the Ohio and Mississippi Riv- 
ers. Cairo, where was being waged a 
valiant fight by man against the ele- 
ments and the two mightly rivers! Cam- 
eramen grinding away, with threats of 
compulsory work filling sandbags, to 
help stem the overlapping waters. Man 
fighting his master . . . Ole Man River! 
And newsreelers fighting all odds . . . 
to get the story ... the great flood of 
'37. 

The waters are now going down . . . 
Ole Man River has again proved himself 
master! So have the newsreelers in giv- 
ing a graphic account ... in informing 
on outside world of the havoc ... of 
the heartaches ... of the pitiful plight 
of the victims of Ole Man River. 

The crest is spent . . . the big flood 
of all time . . . the big flood of '37 has 
now entered the pages of history and 
the most graphic pages are recorded on 
celluloid . . . on the celluloid of the 
newsreelers. Once again the newsreel- 
ers have mastered another heretofore 
impossible enemy! This time Ole Man 
River! 


Cameras Should Be Instruments 
of Illusion 

Continued from page 1 1 9 

Every woman knows she appears to 
better advantage under a certain kind 
of light. Photograph your women sub- 
jects under light conditions approximat- 
ing their own choice. If the children 
are temporarily in one of the many 
stages of growth that interferes with 
their physical appearance, blot cut the 
blemishes with proper light application. 

It's entirely legitimate. Even your 
portrait photographer places lights to 
advantage — and then retouches his neg- 
ative. Films are the igreat glorifier, 
rightfully. A film that fails in this re- 
gard falls short of its true purpose. 


16 mm Theatre 

According to reports, the J. H. Cooper 
Enterprises, Inc., which have theatres in 
four Colorado cities, are offering I 6mm 
pictures in their houses in conjunction 
with their regular shows. 

For this purpose they have installed 
regular 1 6mm projectors. The 16mm 
pictures are usually of local sports 
events, festivals, fairs, etc. 


C I N E A N D 
MINIATURE 
CAMERA 
SPECIALISTS 


MORGAN 

CAMERA 

SHOP 

SUNSET AT VINE 
HOLLYWOOD 


Rates: Seven cents a word. Minimum 
charge, one dollar per insertion. 


FOR SALE— MISCELLANEOUS 


WALL SINGLE SYSTEM SOUND CAMERA with 
direct drive motor, new type movement, 
variable area high fidelity galvanometer, 
microphone, amplifier, lenses, tripod and 
accessories. Complete, ready for operation. 
Rebuilt silenced and standard Bell & Howell 
170 degree Cameras — Hi-speed gear boxes. 
Bell & Howell Hi-speed shuttles. Two 
late model Bell & Howell splicers; Bell & 
Howell sound printer: pair used Simplex 
portab’e sound projectors with 2000 ft. 
magazines. Precision, DeBrie and Bell 6- 
Howell pan and tilt tripods. Bell Cr Howell 
1000 ft., 400 ft. magazines. Motors, sun- 
shades, finders, lenses and all accessories. 
Write, wire or cable. MOTION PICTURE 
CAMERA SUPPLY, INC., 723 SEVENTH 
AVE., NEW YORK, N. Y. CINECAMERA. 


35MM. NEGATIVE fresh Eastman and Dupont 
stock — panchromatic — super-sensitive 
— superior — grayback, $2.50 per hundred 
feet. 100 ft., daylight loading rolls, $2.75 
each. 10% discount on all orders accom- 
panied by this coupon. F.O.B. Hollywood. 
PACIFIC COAST RAW FILM CO.. 1558 
No. Vine St., Hollywood, Calif. 


BELL Cr HOWELL 5-WAY SOUND PRINTER, 
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Projection and Lighting Equipment. Guar- 
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Send for 1937 Bargain Catalogue. Holly- 
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Blvd., Hollywood, California. Cable Ho- 
camex. 


WE BUY, SELL AND RENT PROFESSIONAL 
AND 16mm EQUIPMENT NEW AND USED. 
WE ARE DISTRIBUTORS FOR ALL LEAD- 
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WE HAVE WHAT YOU WANT. Brand new 
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S.O.S., 1600-F Broadway, New York. 

NEW FULLY EQUIPPED FEARLESS 65MM 
wide film camera. Ideal for color and ex- 
perimental work. Extra 35mm high speed 
movement. Price complete $2,000.00. Fear- 
less Camera Co., Hollywood, Calif. 

A CAMERAMAN'S CAMERA IS THIS BELL & 
Howell Camera. — Has built-in Buckle Trip 
and Bloop light. With full or Academy 
Aperture. Interchangeable. 35, 40, 50 and 
75mm Cooke-Panchro Lenses corrected for 
Color work; 4 400-ft. or 2 1000-ft. Maga- 
zines; Mitchell standard tripod: B & H 
Cine Motor, rewound: Veeder Counter; 

Head and Magazine and Accessory Cases; 
set Gauze Matts; set of Filters, 2 and 3 
inch. Guaranteed in first-class condition 
for process or trick work. Price $1500 
CAMERA SUPPLY CO.. 1515 No. Cahuenga 
Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 


SILENT BELL & HOWELL CAMERA WITH 
silent Unit I shuttle — guaranteed perfect — 
no blimp required — with four fast lenses. 
2 — 1000 foot rubber covered magazines, 
front attachments, tripod and accessories. 
Fuliv equipped readv to shoot — $1400.00. 
RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE, 729 Seventh 
Ave., New York. 

BELL-HOWELL CAMERA SILENCED, adapt- 
ed for color, variable area, single systeni 
sound. Complete outfit, like new, ready 
to shoot. $2750.00. Hollywood Camera 
Exchange. 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Holly- 
wood, California. Cable Hocamex. 

SILENT BELL & HOWELL CAMERA equipped 
with Fearless Quick Focus Shift and silent 
Fearless high speed movement; 4 fast len- 
ses; 4-1000 ft. magazines, matte box, 2 
motors, friction head tripod, etc. This 
silent camera does not require blimp. Ideal 
for color. Price fully equipped $1,500.00. 
Fearless Camera Co., Hollywood, Calif. 

16MM FILMS. ALL SUBJECTS, BARGAINS, 
Exchanges made. Trades accepted. We buy 
anything. Free illustrated catalog, (with 
sample Art Film. 10c) Carden Camera, 800 
8th Avenue, New York. 

ART MOVIES, 16MM AND 8MM. FREE LIST. 
Stone, (Dept. F) Room 312E, 30 Church 
St., New York City. 

HERE ARE SOME OF OUR SPECIAL VALUES. 
RCA Galvanometers, $75.00; Western 
Electric Recording Amplifiers, from $43.50; 
W. E. Condenser Microphones, $95.00; 
Fox Movie-tone Recording Cameras, $975.- 
00; RCA Photophone Variable Area Studio 
Records, brand new, $1495.00; Background 
projection screens. $144.00. Loads of 
ofhers; lisfs free. S.O.S., 1600-F Broadway, 
New York. 

SOUND TRUCK WITH FULL EQUIPMENT, 
including variable density light valve re- 
corder with noise reduction; 2 position ex- 
tended mixer; Power batteries 32 volt 
D.C. to 220 volt; 3 phase generator with 
automatic speed control; gas engine bat- 
tery charger; microphones; inter communi- 
cation telephone system; magazines and 
complete accessory equipment ready to 
record. An outstanding buy at $4,000.00. 

Fearless Camera Co ., Hollywood, Calif. 

waI^ted 

tell us what YOU HAVE. Get our offers. 
We’ll buy Used Cameras, Lenses, Recorders, 
Printers, Splicers, Tripods, Cinemotors, 
Magazines, Microphones, Amplifiers, Pro- 
jectors, Laboratory and Studio Equipment. 
Trades taken — Bargains galore. S.O.S., 
1600-F Broadway, New York. 

WANTED. We pay cash for everything pho- 
tographic. Send full information and low- 
est cash prices. Hollywood Camera Ex- 
change, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, 

Calif. 

WE PAY CASH FOR YOUR USED CAMERA, 
LABORATORY AND STUDIO EQUIPMENT. 
Write, wire or cable MOTION PICTURE 
CAMERA SUPPLY, INC., 723 Seventh Ave- 
nue, New York City. Cable Address: Cine- 
camera. 

MAGNETIC TITLING LETTERS. MUST BE 
CHEAP AND PERFECT. DOUGALL, 947 So. 
Cramercy Drive, Los Angeles, Calif. 


Back Issues of American Cinematographer on Hand 

1 937 — February. 

1933 — Jan,, Feb., March, April, 

1936 — All months, except Jan 

u- May, June, October, Nov- 

ary and February. 

ember, December. 

1 935 — None. 

1932 — All months except 

1934 — January, March, April, 

October. 

July, August September, 1931 — All months. 

All Back Issues Are 

Priced at 30c in Single Copies 

American 

Cinematographer 

1782 No. Orange Drive 

Hollywood, California 







1. ADJUSTABLE HEIGHT 


The screen you select should be adapt- 
able to the varied projection require- 
ments which you will have in showing 
mo\des. The Da-Lite Challenger is the 
most versatile of all portable screens. 
It can be set up anywhere. It ALONE 
offers a choice of three positions"' to 
which the fully opened screen can be 
raised. A catch spring locks the screen 
automatically at the desired height. No 
thumb screws! In the four larger sizes, 
the screen is lifted by means of a crank. 


*For Larger Audiences 
This height permits pro- 
jecting movies above the 
heads of the audience 
and seating more peo- 
ple in direct line with 
the screen. 


To set up the Da-Lite Challenger, simply 
open the legs of the tripod, hook the 
screen over the goose-neck and raise to 
height desired. 


REC. U. S. PAT. OFF. 

Quality Screens 
for More Than 
■ i Quarter Century 


2. SQUARE CENTER ROD 

To insure perfect focus of the entire pic- 
ture, the center rod of the tripod of the 
Challenger Screen is square instead of 
round. It has a slot or groove in which the 
handle mounting slides up and down when 
the screen is being adjusted in height. This 
square, slotted construction prevents the 
case from turning on the center rod and 
throwing the lower part of the screen out 
of focus. Note (at left) the wide sup- 
porting band on the case and the sturdy 
handle mounting on the center rod. 

3. NON-SAG TOP SLAT 

A rigid metal slat across the top edge of the 
screen fabric of the Challenger does for the 
upper part of the screen what the case 
does for the lower part . . . keeps the upper 
corners and sides straight, permitting per- 
fect focusing of the entire picture. 

4. GLASS-BEADED SURFACE 

For the average operating conditions, in 
home, school, club or church where most 
of the audience can be seated within a twen- 
ty-five degree viewing angle of the screen, 
the Da-Lite glass-beaded surface is the 
most efficient. It reflects the maximum 
amount of light and gives the brightest, 
clearest and most sharply defined pictures. 
Da-Lite manufactures screens with other 
surfaces, but unless another type is speci- 
fied, furnishes the Challenger and other 
portable models with the beaded surface. 


!=For Small Croups 


*For Croups of 5 to 8 Persons 


5. IMPROVED HANDLE MOUNTING 

The leather handle of the Challenger, instead 
of being fastened directly to the side of the 
metal carrying case, is attached to a si>ecial 
angle-iron mounting, encompassing the center 
rod of the tripod. A wide band of heavy gauge 
steel around the case is pivotally attached to 
this angle-iron. Thus, there is no strain on 
the case. You get this practical construction 
only in the Da-Lite Challenger. 

.See this finer screen at your dealer's today'. 
The Challenger is only one of the many out- 
standing values in the Da-Lite Hue. rite for 

literature now! 

DA-LITE SCREEN CO.. Inc. 

2723 No. Crawford Ave., Chicago, III. 


The Da-Lite Challenger Screen 
Can Give Yon All of These 

ADVANCED FEATURES! 


Da-Lite Screens 




An Essential Part of Every Production 

A CAME'RA to interpret the ereative art 

of Directors of Photography 

Mitchell Cameras 

fill that requirement 




Mitchell Camera Corporation 

665 N. ROBERTSON BOULEVARD 
WEST HOLLYWOOD, CALIF. 

Cable Address “MITCAMCO” Phone OXford 105 i 

AGENCIES 

BELL & HOWELL CO., LTD,, London, England MOTION PICTURE CAMERA SUPPLY, INC., New York City 

CLAUD C. CARTER, Sydney, Australia BOMBAY RADIO CO., LTD., Bombay, India 

D. NAGASE & CO., LTD., Osaka, Japan H. NASSIBIAN, Cairo, Egypt